Beatrice of England
F, b. June 25, 1242, d. March 24, 1275
- Birth: Beatrice of England was born on June 25, 1242 in Bordeaux, Gironde, France.
- Marriage: She and John II of Dreux were married on January 22, 1260 in France.
- Death: Beatrice of England died on March 24, 1275, at age 32, in London, Middlesex, England.
John I "the Red" of Dreux
M, b. 1217, d. October 8, 1286
- Birth: John I "the Red" of Dreux was born in 1217 in Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, Pays de la Loire, France.
- Marriage: He and Blanche of Navarre were married in 1236.
- Death: John I "the Red" of Dreux died on October 8, 1286, at age ~69, in Richmond Castle, North Riding Yorkshire, England.
- Note: John I of Dreux (in French Jean I de Dreux) (1217 – October 8, 1286), known as "the Red" (le Roux) due to the colour of his beard, was Duke of Brittany, from 1237 to his death. He was son of Duke Peter I and Alix of Thouars, heiress of the duchy. In 1236 John married Princess Blanche of Navarre, daughter of Theobald IV of Champagne.
John was nominal duke from 1221, date of his mother’s death, although his father ruled as regent until he reached adulthood. (Wikipedia.)
Blanche of Navarre
F, b. 1226, d. August 14, 1283
- Birth: Blanche of Navarre was born in 1226 in Pamplona, Navarre, Spain.
- Marriage: She and John I "the Red" of Dreux were married in 1236.
- Death: Blanche of Navarre died on August 14, 1283, at age ~57.
Peter of Dreux
M, b. circa 1190, d. 1251
- Birth: Peter of Dreux was born circa 1190 in Braine, Aisne, Picardy, France.
- Death: He died in 1251 in at sea.
- Note: Duke of Brittany He was duke of Brittany (in right of his wife) from 1213-1221, then regent of the duchy (for his minor son) from 1221-1237. He was the second son of Robert II, Count of Dreux. The latter was in turn the son of Robert I of Dreux, a younger brother of Louis VII of France. Pierre was thus of the Capetian royal house, and a second cousin of Louis VIII of France. Despite being of royal blood, as the younger son of a cadet branch Pierre's early prospects were that of a minor noble, with a few scattered fiefs in the Île-de-France and Champagne.
However, in 1212 king Philip II of France needed to find a strong ruler for Brittany. The duchy lay athwart the sea lanes between England and the English territories in Gascony. Furthermore it bordered on Anjou and Normandy, which the English had lost a decade or two before and were eager to recover. It was being ruled with less than a strong hand by Guy of Thouars, as regent for his young daughter Alix. Also worrisome was that Alix's older half-sister Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany was in an English prison.
And so king Philip turned to his cousin Pierre, then in his early twenties. Pierre married Alix, and on January 27, 1213 did homage to the king for Brittany.
There is some ambiguity regarding whether Pierre should be considered duke or count of Brittany. King and Pope (and their courts) always addressed him as "count", but Pierre in his own charters used "duke".
In 1214 king John of England had assembled a formidable coalition against the French. He landed in Poitou while the German king Otto prepared to invade from the north. John chased off some French forces in the north of Poitou, and then moved to the south edge of Brittany, opposite Nantes. Pierre drove him off after a brief skirmish, but did nothing to hinder John's subsequent movement up the Loire valley, where he took a few Breton fortresses and then besieged La Roche-au-Moin. John's Poitivan vassals, however, refused to fight against a French force led by prince Louis (later Louis VIII of France), and meanwhile the northern invasion was crushed at Bouvines, and the entire invasion foundered. It is not clear why John attempted to capture Nantes, even less why he would do so the hardest way, via the very well-defended bridge across the Loire. Nor is it clear why Pierre declined to harass his forces from the rear as John marched east. A likely explanation is that the two had come to some sort of agreement, whereby John would leave Brittany alone for the moment, and in return the Bretons would not hinder him elsewhere.
John had a prize he could dangle in front of Pierre: the earldom of Richmond. This great English honor had traditionally been held by the dukes of Brittany, and in fact a constant theme in Pierre's political affairs was the desire to hold and retain the English revenues from Richmond. Pierre did not yield to king John's offers to accept the earldom and take up the king's side in his conflicts with the English barons, probably because he deemed the king's prospects too uncertain. Moreover, Prince Louis was again fighting against the English. But when Louis was defeated, Pierre was sent as one of the negotiators for a peace treaty. After the negotiations were complete (in 1218), William Marshal, the regent for the young Henry III of England, recognized Pierre as Earl of Richmond. The center of the earldom's properties in Yorkshire were in the hands of the earl of Chester, whom the regent could not afford to antagonize, but Pierre did receive the properties of the Earldom outside of Yorkshire, which in fact generated the bulk of the earldom's income. While the negotiations were slowly proceeding, Pierre turned his attention to his next goal. The authority of the dukes of Brittany had traditionally been weak, in comparison to the great peers of northern France. For example, the duke could not limit the building of castles by his counts. Nor did he have the right to guardianship of minor heirs of his vassals. Pierre aimed to re-establish his relationship with his vassals (or subjects) more along the lines of what he knew from the Capetian royal court.
To that end Peter simply declared new rules by fiat, and then faced the inevitable turmoil that resulted from the reaction of his barons. There followed a series of small civil wars and political maneuverings, but by 1223, the barons had all acquiesced to the changes or been dispossessed. The six Breton bishops were the other threat to the ducal power, for they had substantial landholdings (including control of all or part of the few cities in Brittany), and were recalcitrant in the face of Pierre's attempts to raise revenues by increasing taxes or simply taking possession of episcopal holdings. For this he was excommunicated for a time in 1219-1221. Pierre submitted in the end, but this was not to be the last of his conflict with the bishops. Pierre's wife Duchess Alix died on October 21, 1221, leaving behind four young children. She was then only 21, and little is known about her beyond the basic genealogical facts. Her death meant that Pierre was no longer Duke, although he continued to rule the duchy with undiminished authority, as regent for his son Jean, then a boy of four or so.
Alix's death changed Pierre's goals in two ways. First, he aimed to acquire some additional territory, not part of the duchy, to augment his retirement after his son came of age. Second, there was a strong tradition in France that a minor heir should, when coming of age, have his property in the state it was in when he inherited it. Thus Pierre could not now take some risks without fear of harming the prospects of his son. (Wikipedia.)
Alix de Thouars
F, b. 1201, d. October 21, 1221
- Birth: Alix de Thouars was born in 1201 in Thouars, Deux-Sevres, France.
- Death: She died on October 21, 1221, at age ~20, in Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, Pays de la Loire, France.
- Note: Alix of Thouars (1201 – October 21, 1221) was the nominal Duchess of Brittany from 1206 to her death. She was the daughter of Constance, Duchess of Brittany and Guy of Thouars. In 1206, king Philip II of France withdrew Brittany from her father and became himself the Regent of the duchy in Alix’s name. In 1213, the king organized her marriage to his cousin Peter of Dreux, who became the regent. Alix died in childbirth, without having ever much control over her own inheritance. She was succeeded in the duchy by her son John I, but Peter remained the de facto ruler of Brittany until 1237. Recently, Alix de Touars direct descedents have been traced to London, UK. They live peacefully amongst the french community of South Kensington. Having intergrated well into this environment, they now attend all the local social functions, such as rallyes, shisha and getting mugged by those rather nasty street urchins. The two most notable descendants are Alix and Constance Thouars-Cailleras-De la Ghetto. These two young ladies enjoy being mean and mocking other students in their high school, imitating their favorite feature hollywood motion picture Mean Girls, hence their high school nickname "Mean Girls". The news that these two girls are descendants of La Noblesse Francaise has prtompted an uprising in the school of Frenchies. These individuals are beginning more and more to flout their Frenchy attitudes by smoking a lot and talking about themselves and thier holidays in enclosed sunny resorts where they had excessive amounts of alcohol and stranger sex. (Wikipedia.)
Guy de Thouars
M, b. 1155, d. April 13, 1213
- Birth: Guy de Thouars was born in 1155 in Thouars, Deux-Sevres, France.
- Death: He died on April 13, 1213, at age ~58, in Villeneuve, Charente-Martime, France.
- Note: Duke of Brittany He was Duke of Brittany between 1203 and 1206, succeeding his stepson Arthur I. He was the second husband of duchess Constance and styled himself Duke of Brittany and Count of Richmond in right of his wife.
However, Constance died in 1202, and since Guy's rule was based on thin criteria, King Philip II of France took control of the duchy soon afterwards. Guy served as regent from 1203 to 1213. Eventually he gave Brittany to his cousin Peter of Dreux, married to Alix of Thouars, Guy and Constance's daughter. He died in 1213 and was buried at Villeneuve Abbey Church. (Wikipedia.)
Constance of Brittany
F, b. circa 1161, d. September 5, 1201
- Birth: Constance of Brittany was born circa 1161 in Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, Pays de la Loire, France.
- Death: She died on September 5, 1201 in Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, Pays de la Loire, France.
- Note: She was Duchess of Brittany between 1186 and 1196. Constance was the only child of Conan IV, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond, by his wife Margaret of Scotland, countess of Hereford (granddaughter of king David II). In 1181, Constance married Geoffrey Plantagenet, the fourth son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, and had two children by him: Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany (1184-1241) and Arthur. Geoffrey assumed the title of Duke of Brittany and became the effective ruler of the duchy since the date. However, he died in 1186, stamped by a horse during a tournament. Constance then became ruler of Brittany until 1196, when she abdicated in favour of Arthur. After her son's rebellion was quashed, Arthur disappeared into one of King John's castles, never to be seen again, and Eleanor was imprisoned for the rest of her days. King Henry had arranged for Constance to marry Ranulph de Meschines, 4th Earl of Chester in 1188, but this marriage was not successful, and Ranulph imprisoned his wife in 1196, an act that sparked a rebellion in her native Brittany. Finally in 1198 she was released, and had her marriage to Ranulph annulled. Constance then took Guy of Thouars as her husband, and by him was mother of Alix of Thouars, who married Peter de Dreux, first Breton ruler of the House of Dreux. Constance lived out the last few years of her life quite peacefully, then died of leprosy in 1201, and was buried at the Villeneuve Abbey Church. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
Geoffrey V de Thouars
M, b. 1120, d. 1173
- Birth: Geoffrey V de Thouars was born in 1120 in Thouars, Deux-Sevres, France.
- Death: He died in 1173, at age ~53.
Aenor de Lusignan
F, b. 1125
- Birth: Aenor de Lusignan was born in 1125 in Lusignan, Vienne, France.
Aimery V de Thouars
M, b. 1071
- Birth: Aimery V de Thouars was born in 1071 in Thouars, Deux-Sevres, France.
Blanche of Navarre
F, b. circa 1180
- Birth: Blanche of Navarre was born circa 1180.
- Marriage: She and Theobald III of Champagne were married in 1229.
- Note: Countess-consort of Champagne Blanche de Navarre was Countess-consort of Champagne, then acted as regent of Champagne, and finally also as regent of her native kingdom of Navarre. She was born in 1170's and died 1229. She was the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre (who died 1194) and Sancha of Castile, the daughter of Alfonso VII. Her eldest brother Sancho VII of Navarre succeeded their father as king of Navarre. Her brother Ramiro of Navarre was Bishop of Pamplona, and her elder sister Berengaria of Navarre married Richard I of England and Aquitaine, the northern neighbor of their kingdom. She herself was married to Count Theobald III of Champagne, who died already in 1201. At that time, she was pregnant, and then gave birth to son, who immediately became count Theobald IV of Champagne (1201-53). Blanca ruled the county as regent until Theobald turned 21 in 1222. The regency was plagued by a number of difficulties. Blanca's brother-in-law, count Henry II had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Theobald III died. Further, their son Theobald's legitimacy was not unquestioned, and his right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful Champagne nobles. The conflict with the Briennes broke into open warfare in 1215, and was not resolved until after Theobald came of age in 1222. At that time Theobald and Blanca bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Blanca had also arranged the dowry to Henry II's elder daughter Alice, when she was married to the young king of Cyprus. In 1230's, in order to settle with Alice, Theobald IV had to sell his overlordship over the counties of Blois, Sancerre, and Chateaudun to the king of France. Blanca's brother Sancho VII of Navarre was the last male-line descendant of the first dynasty of kings of Navarre, the Pamplona dynasty, and was childless. Sancho went into retirement ("el Encerrado") at some point, when Blanca took administration of the kingdom. Blanca died in 1229, her brother in retirement remaining as king of Navarre and her son Theobald continuing as count of Champagne. Their eldest sister, Berengaria, queen of England, died 1232 childless, thus leaving Sancho alone as children of Sancho VI. When he died, Blanca's son Theobald of Champagne was recognized as the next monarch in Navarre in 1234. Count Theobald IV thus succeeded his uncle Sancho VII of Navarre as king of Navarre. Theobald had married twice during Blanca's lifetime, but had not succeeded in producing children. Blanca went to grave not seeing future for her dynasty. However, afterwards, Theobald had children in his third marriage. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
Geoffrey III de Thouars
M, b. circa 1045, d. 1123
- Birth: Geoffrey III de Thouars was born circa 1045 in Thouars, Deux-Sevres, France.
- Death: He died in 1123.
Theobald III of Champagne
M, b. January 13, 1179, d. May 24, 1201
- Birth: Theobald III of Champagne was born on January 13, 1179 in Champagne, Dordogne, Aquitaine, France.
- Marriage: He and Blanche of Navarre were married in 1229.
- Death: Theobald III of Champagne died on May 24, 1201, at age 22.
- Note: He succeeded as count of Champagne in 1197 upon the death of his older brother Henry II. In 1198, Pope Innocent III called the Fourth Crusade. There was little enthusiasm for the crusade at first, but in 1199 various nobles of France gathered at Theobald's court for a tournament, including the preacher Fulk of Neuilly. There, they "took the cross," and elected Theobald their leader, but he died the next year and was replaced by Boniface of Montferrat. Theobald married Blanche of Navarre, and was succeeded by his posthumous son by Blanche, Theobald IV. She was to rule as regent for the following 21 years, during which the succession was contested by Theobald's nieces. (Wikipedia.)
Agnes of Beaujeu
F, b. 1202, d. July 11, 1231
- Birth: Agnes of Beaujeu was born in 1202 in Beaujeu, Rhône, Rhône-Alpes, France.
- Marriage: She and Theobald I of Navarre were married in 1222.
- Death: Agnes of Beaujeu died on July 11, 1231, at age ~29, in Clairvaux, Champagne-Ardenne, France.
Theobald I of Navarre
M, b. May 3, 1201, d. July 8, 1253
- Birth: Theobald I of Navarre was born on May 3, 1201 in Navarre, Spain.
- Marriage: He and Agnes of Beaujeu were married in 1222.
- Death: Theobald I of Navarre died on July 8, 1253, at age 52, in Pamplona, Navarre, Spain.
Hildegard of Burgundy
F, b. circa 1049
- Birth: Hildegard of Burgundy was born circa 1049 in Bourgogne, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France.
- Marriage: She and Guillaume VIVIII Aquitaine were married in 1068.
Conan IV "the Black" of Brittany
M, b. 1138, d. February 20, 1171
- Birth: Conan IV "the Black" of Brittany was born in 1138 in Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, Pays de la Loire, France.
- Death: He died on February 20, 1171, at age ~33, in Richmond, North Riding Yorkshire, England.
- Note: He was son of Alan de Bretagne, 1st Earl of Richmond and Bertha of Brittany. Through his mother he was the nephew and heir of Duke Hoel III. From his fathers side, Conan was great grandson of duke Geoffrey I and grandson of Eudes of Brittany. In 1156, Hoel was expelled and Conan was successful in wresting control of the Duchy from his stepfather Eudes. In 1158, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes died and Conan seized Nantes. Geoffrey's brother, King Henry II of England, responded by seizing Richmond and demanding the return of Nantes. Conan and Henry made peace, and Conan married Henry's cousin, Margaret of Scotland, in 1160. Conan had to face several revolts from his own nobles. To sustain the unrest, the duke appealed to the help of Henry, who, in return, demanded the engagement of Conans only daughter and heiress Constance with his son Geoffrey Plantagenet. son of Alan II and Bertha of Brittany. He was son of Alan de Bretagne, 1st Earl of Richmond and Bertha of Brittany. Through his mother he was the nephew and heir of Duke Hoel III. From his fathers side, Conan was great grandson of duke Geoffrey I and grandson of Eudes of Brittany. In 1156, Hoel was expelled and Conan was successful in wresting control of the Duchy from his stepfather Eudes. In 1158, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes died and Conan seized Nantes. Geoffrey's brother, King Henry II of England, responded by seizing Richmond and demanding the return of Nantes. Conan and Henry made peace, and Conan married Henry's cousin, Margaret of Scotland, in 1160. Conan had to face several revolts from his own nobles. To sustain the unrest, the duke appealed to the help of Henry, who, in return, demanded the engagement of Conans only daughter and heiress Constance with his son Geoffrey Plantagenet. (Wikipedia.)
Sancha of Castile
F, b. 1137, d. 1179
- Birth: Sancha of Castile was born in 1137.
- Death: She died in 1179, at age ~42.
Alan of Brittany
M, b. circa 1116, d. September 15, 1146
- Birth: Alan of Brittany was born circa 1116 in York, Yorkshire, England.
- Death: He died on September 15, 1146 in Richmond, North Riding Yorkshire, England.
- Note: Alan de Bretagne (c. 1116-1146) was the son of Stephen, Count of Penthievre. He was the first to be styled Earl of Richmond, although Stephen and some of his predecessors had been territorial lords of Richmondshire before him. Alan married Bertha, daughter and heiress of Conan III, Duke of Brittany. His heir by Bertha was Conan IV, Duke of Brittany and an illegitimate son was Brian Fitz Alan, progenitor of the Bedale seigneurs. Another son was Reynald, knight of Fritheby. They also had Constance, who married Alan III, Vicomte of Rohan and Enougen, abbess of St. Sulpice.
Stephen's son Alan (c. 1116-1146), was the first of these lords to be styled 'Earl of Richmond'. This Alan married Bertha, daughter and heiress of Conan of Brittany. Their son Conan (c. 1138-1171) married Margaret of Huntingdon, sister of Malcolm IV of Scotland. He asserted his right to Brittany, and with it Richmond, and transferred it in his lifetime to his daughter Constance (c. 1162-1201). As he left no sons, Richmond and his other English possessions passed to the king in 1171, though Constance is loosely spoken of as countess of Richmond in her own right. (Wikipedia.)
Bertha of Brittany
F, b. circa 1114
- Birth: Bertha of Brittany was born circa 1114 in Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, Pays de la Loire, France.
Sybille of Hainaut
F, b. 1179, d. January 9, 1217
- Birth: Sybille of Hainaut was born in 1179.
- Death: She died on January 9, 1217, at age ~38.
Humbert IV of Beaujeu
M, b. 1142, d. 1202
- Birth: Humbert IV of Beaujeu was born in 1142 in Beaujeu, Rhône, Rhône-Alpes, France.
- Death: He died in 1202, at age ~60.
Agnes de Chalon
F, b. circa 1142
- Birth: Agnes de Chalon was born circa 1142.
Humbert III of Beaujeu
M, b. 1120, d. 1174
- Birth: Humbert III of Beaujeu was born in 1120 in Beaujeu, Rhône, Rhône-Alpes, France.
- Death: He died in 1174, at age ~54.