Sahak of Armenia
M, d. 771
- Death: Sahak of Armenia died in 771.
Smbat of Armenia
M, d. 726
- Death: Smbat of Armenia died in 726.
Ashot of Armenia
M, d. 689
- Death: Ashot of Armenia died in 689.
Isaac Sevada of Katchen
M, b. circa 840
- Birth: Isaac Sevada of Katchen was born circa 840.
Samuil of Bulgaria
M, b. circa 945, d. October 6, 1014
- Birth: Samuil of Bulgaria was born circa 945.
- Death: He died on October 6, 1014 in Prilep, Pelagonia, Macedonia.
- Note: He ruled as Emperor (Tsar) of Bulgaria from 997 to 6 October 1014, having prior to that co-ruled with Roman between 976 and 997. In practice, Samuel executed a monarch's functions from 976, as Roman bestowed the command of the army and the actual authorities to the talented general. An energetic ruler, Samuil devoted his life to the struggle to preserve his country's independence from the Byzantines. His rule was characterized by a constant state of war against the Byzantine Empire and its similarly ambitious ruler Basil II.
During his reign, Bulgaria gained control of most of the Balkans with the exception of Thrace and southern Greece. He moved the capital to Ohrid, which had been the cultural and military centre of southwestern Bulgaria since Boris I's rule, and also made the city the seat of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. Although Samuil's reign brought the end of the First Bulgarian Empire, he is regarded as a heroic ruler.
Samuil was the fourth and youngest son of Comita Nikola, most likely Count of Sredets (Sofia) and the Armenian princess Ripsimia. His father, who had close links with the royal court in Preslav, died in 970. In the same year the four brothers David, Moses, Aron and Samuil rebelled against the alliance of Boris II and John I Tzimiskes, in which they saw an attempt of the Byzantines to seize the power in Bulgaria without struggle. This apprehension was confirmed when Boris II was deceived by the Byzantines and forced to abdicate in Constantinople in 971. The triumphant Tzimiskes announced the annexation of Bulgaria but de facto he controlled only the northeastern parts of the country, including the capital Preslav and the seat of the patriarchate Drastar (Silistra). The lands to the west of the Iskar River remained under the control of the four Comitopuli (Kometopouloi, i.e., "the sons of the Count"), as the brothers were called in Byzantine sources. In 973, they sent envoys to the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I in Quedlinburg in an attempt to secure the protection of their lands.
The brothers ruled together in a specific tetrarchy. The eldest brother, David, governed the southernmost regions and lead the defence of one of the most dangerous border areas around Thessaloniki and Thessaly. The centres of his possessions were Prespa and Kastoria. The seat of the second brother was Strumitsa, which would be used a base for assaults to the Aegean coast and Serres. Aron ruled from Sredets, from where he was to stop enemy invasions on the main road from Adrianople to Belgrade, as well as to launch attacks towards Thrace. Samuil was responsible for the northwestern regions of the realm and his seat was the strong fortress of Vidin. He was also to organize the liberation of the conquered areas to the east and the reconquest of Preslav. Some records suggest that David played a major role in this tumultuous period of Bulgarian history.
Even before the fall of Preslav, the Bulgarians defeated the Asian army of Byzantium under the eunuch Peter on the outskirts of Plovdiv in 970. Between 971 and 975, there were numerous skirmishes and minor battles and the Bulgarian detachments harassed the Byzantine possessions in the Balkans. The death of John I Tzimiskes on 11 January 976 unleashed bitter and bloody military actions: upon the news of his death, the Comitopuli launched an assault along the whole border. Only within the first weeks of the assault the two eldest brothers perished: David was killed by Vlach vagrants and Moses was fatally injured by a stone during the siege of Serres. The actions of the elder brothers to the south detained many Byzantine troops and eased the long-prepared liberation of northeastern Bulgaria which successfully took place under Samuil: the Byzantine commander was defeated and retreated to Crimea. The corrupt Bulgarian nobles and officials who did not oppose the Byzantine conquest of the region were executed and the war continued to the north of the Danube until the enemy was thoroughly defeated and the Bulgarian rule to the north of the river was restored. In 1965 the Greek professor Nikolaos Mutsupulos uncovered the grave of Samuil on an island in Lake Prespa. The body of the emperor was discovered in the Church of St Achillios, which he had built for the relics of the saint of the same name. (Wikipedia.)
F, b. circa 945
- Birth: Agatha Chryselia was born circa 945.
M, b. circa 1095
- Birth: Theodore Castamonita was born circa 1095.
Hugh IV of Burgundy
M, b. March 9, 1213, d. October 27, 1271
- Birth: Hugh IV of Burgundy was born on March 9, 1213 in Bourgogne, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France.
- Marriage: He and Yolande of Dreux were married in 1229.
- Death: Hugh IV of Burgundy died on October 27, 1271, at age 58.
- Note: He was duke of Burgundy between 1218 and 1271. Hugh was the only son of duke Eudes III and Alice (or Alix) of Vergy. He was married twice, first to Yolande of Dreux, then to Beatrice of Champagne, princess of Navarre. In 1239, Hugh joined the Crusade organized by Emperor Frederick II and king Theobald I of Navarre. The Burgundian troops allied with Richard of Cornwall, who took Ascalon and negotiated a peace with Egypt in 1241. Hugh also claimed the Kingdom of Thessalonica, although it had been recaptured by the Byzantines some years before. Under the rule of Hugh IV, the duchy of Burgundy expanded to include the counties of Chalon and Auxonne. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
Yolande of Dreux
F, b. 1212, d. 1248
- Birth: Yolande of Dreux was born in 1212 in Dreux, Eure-et-Loir, Centre, France.
- Marriage: She and Hugh IV of Burgundy were married in 1229.
- Death: Yolande of Dreux died in 1248, at age ~36.
Robert III of Dreux
M, b. circa 1185, d. March 3, 1234
- Birth: Robert III of Dreux was born circa 1185 in Dreux, Eure-et-Loir, Centre, France.
- Marriage: He and Alienor de Saint Valery were married in 1210.
- Death: Robert III of Dreux died on March 3, 1234 in Braine, Aisne, Picardy, France.
- Note: Robert III of Dreux (1185–1234), Count of Dreux and Braine, was the son of Robert III, Count of Dreux, and Yolanda de Coucy. He was given the byname Gasteblé (lit. wheat-spoiler) when he destroyed a field of wheat while hunting in his youth.
Along with his brother Peter, Duke of Brittany he fought with future Louis VIII of France in 1212 at Nantes and was captured there during a sortie. Exchanged after the Battle of Bouvines for William Longsword, Earl of Salisbury, he fought in the Albigensian Crusade, besieging Avignon in 1226. He was a supporter of Blanche of Castile during her regency after the death of Louis VIII in 1226.
In 1210 he married Aénor of Saint-Valéry (1192–1250) and they had several children, including Yolande (1212–1248), who married Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, John I (1215–1249), later Count of Dreux, Robert (1217–1264), Viscount of Châteaudun, and Peter (1220–1250), a cleric. (Wikipedia.)
Alienor de Saint Valery
F, b. 1192, d. 1250
- Birth: Alienor de Saint Valery was born in 1192 in Somme, Picardie, France.
- Marriage: She and Robert III of Dreux were married in 1210.
- Death: Alienor de Saint Valery died in 1250, at age ~58, in Dreux, Eure-et-Loir, Centre, France.
Robert II of Dreux
M, b. 1154, d. December 28, 1218
- Birth: Robert II of Dreux was born in 1154 in Dreux, Eure-et-Loir, Centre, France.
- Marriage: He and Yolande de Coucy were married in 1184.
- Death: Robert II of Dreux died on December 28, 1218, at age ~64, in France.
- Note: Robert II of Dreux (1154–28 December 1218), Count of Dreux and Braine, was the eldest surviving son of Robert I, Count of Dreux, and Agnes de Baudemont, countess of Braine, and a grandson of King Louis VI of France.
He participated in the Third Crusade, at the Siege of Acre and the Battle of Arsuf. He took part in the war in Normandy against the English between 1195 and 1198 and in the Albigensian Crusade in 1210. In 1214 he fought alongside King Philip Augustus at the Battle of Bouvines. His first marriage with Mahaut de Bourgogne (1150–1192) in 1178 ended with separation in 1181 and produced no children. His second marriage to Yolande de Coucy (1164–1222) produced several children, the sons including Robert III (c. 1185–1234), Count of Dreux and Braine, Peter (c. 1190–1250), Duke of Brittany, Henry of Dreux (c. 1193–1240) Archbishop of Reims and John of Dreux (c. 1198–1239), Count of Vienne and Macon. (Wikipedia.)
Yolande de Coucy
F, b. 1164, d. March 18, 1222
- Birth: Yolande de Coucy was born in 1164.
- Marriage: She and Robert II of Dreux were married in 1184.
- Death: Yolande de Coucy died on March 18, 1222, at age ~58.
Robert I of Dreux
M, b. 1123, d. October 11, 1188
- Birth: Robert I of Dreux was born in 1123 in Reims, Marne, France.
- Marriage: He and Hawise of Evreux were married in 1145.
- Marriage: Robert I of Dreux and Agnes de Baudemont were married in 1152.
- Death: Robert I of Dreux died on October 11, 1188, at age ~65, in Braines, Loire Atlantique, France.
- Note: Count of Dreux Count of Perche He was the fifth son of Louis VI of France and Adélaide de Maurienne. Through his mother he was related to the Carolingians. In 1137 he received the County of Dreux as an appanage from his father. He held this title until 1184 when he granted it to his son Robert II. In 1139 he married Agnes de Garlande. By his second marriage in 1145 to Harvise d'Évreux, he became Count of Perche. By this third marriage to Agnes de Baudemont in 1152, he received the County of Braine-sur-Vesle, and the lordships of Fère-en-Tardenois, Pontarcy, Nesle, Longueville, Quincy-en-Tardenois, Savigny, and Baudemont. Robert I participated in the Second Crusade and was at the Siege of Damascus in 1148. In 1158 he fought against the English and participated in the Siege of Séez in 1154. (Wikipedia.)
Agnes de Baudemont
F, b. 1130, d. July 11, 1218
- Birth: Agnes de Baudemont was born in 1130 in Picardy, Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardie, France.
- Marriage: She and Robert I of Dreux were married in 1152.
- Death: Agnes de Baudemont died on July 11, 1218, at age ~88.
Gui de Baudemont
M, d. 1114
- Death: Gui de Baudemont died in 1114 in Picardy, Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardie, France.
Andrew de Baudemont
M, b. circa 1055
- Birth: Andrew de Baudemont was born circa 1055 in Montdidier, Somme, France.
Raoul I de Coucy
M, b. circa 1139, d. November 1, 1191
- Birth: Raoul I de Coucy was born circa 1139 in Boves, Somme, France.
- Marriage: He and Alix of Dreux were married in 1174.
- Death: Raoul I de Coucy died on November 1, 1191 in Palestine.
- Note: Killed during the third crusade.
Agnes of Hainaut
F, b. 1142, d. 1168
- Birth: Agnes of Hainaut was born in 1142 in Mons, Hainaut, Belgium.
- Death: She died in 1168, at age ~26.
Enguerrand II de Coucy
M, b. 1120, d. 1149
- Birth: Enguerrand II de Coucy was born in 1120.
- Death: He died in 1149, at age ~29.
Agnes of Baugency
F, b. circa 1120
- Birth: Agnes of Baugency was born circa 1120.
Thomas I de Coucy
M, b. 1073, d. 1130
- Birth: Thomas I de Coucy was born in 1073 in Coucy, Ardennes, France.
- Death: He died in 1130, at age ~57.
Melisende of Montlhery
F, b. 1075, d. 1147
- Birth: Melisende of Montlhery was born in 1075.
- Death: She died in 1147, at age ~72.
Enguerrand I de Coucy
M, b. circa 1056, d. 1116
- Birth: Enguerrand I de Coucy was born circa 1056 in Boves, Somme, France.
- Death: He died in 1116.
Adele of Marle
F, b. circa 1055
- Birth: Adele of Marle was born circa 1055 in Roucy, Aisne, France.