F, b. 1066, d. February 19, 1133
- Birth: Irene Ducaena was born in 1066.
- Marriage: She and Alexis I Comnenus were married in 1078.
- Death: Irene Ducaena died on February 19, 1133, at age ~67.
- Note: Irene was born in 1066 to Andronicus Ducas and Maria of Bulgaria. Andronicus was a nephew of Emperor Constantine X and a cousin of Michael VII. Irene married Alexius sometime before he acceded to the throne in 1081. For this reason the Ducas family supported Alexius in 1081 when a struggle for the throne erupted after the abdication of Nicephorus III. Irene, however, was not crowned until a week after Alexius became emperor. Alexius may have considered divorcing her and marrying Maria Bagrationi, who may have been his mistress and the former wife of both Michael VII and Nicephorus III; in any case Maria lived in the palace with him, although Anna Comnena vociferously denies that they were carrying on an affair. Anna herself, however, was not born until December 1, 1083. Irene was shy and preferred not to appear in public. She preferred to perform her household duties, and enjoyed reading hagiographic literature and making charitable donations to monks and beggars. Although Alexius may have had Maria as a mistress early in his reign, during the later part of his reign he and Irene were genuinely love (at least according to Anna). Irene accompanied him on his expeditions when necessary; she acted as a nurse for her husband when he was afflicted with gout in his feet. According to Anna she also acted as a sort of guard, as there were constant conspiracies against Alexius. She nursed him on his deathbed on 1118, and suggested that Alexius name Nicephorus Bryennius, Anna's husband, as his heir, over their own younger son John. When John succeeded to the throne, Anna and Nicephorus conspired against him, and both Irene and Anna were then forced into a convent. Irene died in 1123. With Alexius she had seven children. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
M, b. circa 1025
- Birth: John Comnenus was born circa 1025.
F, b. 1025, d. 1102
- Birth: Anna Dalassena was born in 1025.
- Death: She died in 1102, at age ~77.
- Note: She was an important Byzantine noblewoman who rose to position of sort of Empress-Mother during the reign of her son Emperor Alexius I. She married Johannes Komnenos, a nephew of Emperor Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). Her younger son Alexius rose to the throne after vicissitudes of politics. Alexius was for many years under the strong influence of her eminence grise. She is described as a wise and immensely able politician. She was in a uniquely irregular fashion, crowned as Empress Augusta by her son the emperor, instead of the rightful claimant to the title, Alexius' wife Irene. Anna Dalassena was the effective administrator of the Empire during Alexius' long absences in war campaigns: she was constantly at odds with her daughter-in-law Irene Ducaena and had assumed total responsibility for the upbringing and education of her granddaughter Anna Comnena. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
M, b. circa 995
- Birth: Manuel Comnenus was born circa 995.
- Note: He was an officer of Basil II, who on his deathbed commended his two sons Isaac and John to the emperor's care. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
The first of their line was the illustrious Manual, who, in the reign of Basil II, Roman Emperor, 958-963, of the Macedonian Dynasty, contributed by war and treaty to appease the troubles of the East. (Basil II was son of Romanus II, Roman Emperor, and therefore brother of Anne, who married Vlodimir of Russia, who were the grandparents of Anne of Russia, who married Henry I of France, parents of Hugh the Great, the Crusader.) (Kin of Mellcene Thurman Smith, page 442.)
M, b. circa 1036, d. October 14, 1077
- Birth: Andronicus Ducas was born circa 1036 in Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey.
- Death: He died on October 14, 1077.
Maria of Bulgaria
F, b. circa 1033
- Birth: Maria of Bulgaria was born circa 1033 in Ohrid, Macedonia, Bulgaria.
M, b. circa 1020
- Birth: Ionnes Doukas was born circa 1020 in Bulgaria.
F, b. circa 1020
- Birth: Eirenne Pegontissa was born circa 1020.
M, b. circa 976
- Birth: Andronikos Doukas was born circa 976 in Bulgaria.
Troian of Bulgaria
M, b. circa 1010
- Birth: Troian of Bulgaria was born circa 1010.
Ivan Vladislav of Bulgaria
M, b. circa 972, d. February 1018
- Birth: Ivan Vladislav of Bulgaria was born circa 972.
- Death: He died in February 1018 in Durazzo, Albania.
- Note: The year of his birth is unknown, but he was born at least about a decade before 987. Ivan Vladislav was the son of Aron, the brother of Emperor Samuel (Samuil) of Bulgaria. In 987 Samuel ordered his brother Aron executed for treason together with his entire family. The massacre was survived only by Aron's son Ivan Vladislav, who was saved through the intercession of his cousin, Samuel's son Gabriel Radomir.
What happened with Ivan Vladislav during the subsequent decades is unknown, but in 1015 he was induced by Byzantine agents to murder his cousin Gabriel Radomir, while the latter was hunting near Ostrovo (Arnissa), and seize the Bulgarian throne. Ivan Vladislav took steps to ensure his positions against potential rivals, and in 1016 lured and murdered Prince Vladimir of Zeta, who was married to Gabriel Radomir's sister Theodora (Kosara).
Although Ivan Vladislav had entered into negotiations with the Byzantine Emperor Basil II, he quickly began to follow the determined policy of his predecessors to resist the ongoing Byzantine conquest. Ivan Vladislav restored the fortifications of Bitola in 1015 and survived an assassination plot undertaken by Byzantine agents. Although the Byzantines sacked Ohrid, they failed to take Pernik and received troubling intelligence that Ivan Vladislav was attempting to induce the Pechenegs to come to his aid, following up the general practice of his predecessors.
While Byzantine armies had penetrated deep into Bulgaria in 1016, Ivan Vladislav was able to rally his forces and commenced a siege of Durazzo in the winter of 1018. During a battle in front of the city, Ivan Vladislav was killed. After his death much of the Bulgarian nobility and court, including his widow Marija, submitted to the advancing Basil II in exchange of guarantees for the preservation of their lives, status, and property. A faction of the nobles and the army rallied around Ivan Vladislav's eldest sons and continued to resist for several months until it was forced to submit. (Wikipedia.)
Maria of Bulgaria
F, b. circa 972
- Birth: Maria of Bulgaria was born circa 972 in Bulgaria.
Aron of Bulgaria
M, b. circa 945, d. June 14, 976
- Birth: Aron of Bulgaria was born circa 945.
- Death: He died on June 14, 976 in Dupnitsa, Bulgaria.
- Note: He was a Bulgarian noble, brother of Emperor Samuil of Bulgaria and third son of Comita Nikola, Duke of Sofia. After the fall of the eastern parts of the country under Byzantine occupation in 971, he and his three brothers David, Moses and Samuil continued the resistance to the west. They were called Comutopuli and ruled the country together, as the rightful heir to the throne, Boris II and Roman were imprisoned in Constantinople. The residence of Aron was Sofia situated on the main road between Constantinople and Western Europe. He had to defend the area from enemy invasions and attack the Byzantine territories in Thrace. In 976 in the beginning the major campaign against the Byzantine Empire, the two eldest brothers David and Moses perished but the Bulgarians achieved great successes including the return of north-eastern Bulgaria. During that time, the Byzantine Emperor Basil II had to fight both the Bulgarians and the dangerous rebellion under Bardas Skleros and he turned the customary means of the Byzntine policy: conspiracy.
His attention concentrated to Aron, who was more dangerous at the time due to the proximity of his seat to Thrace; and because of his ambition to rule over Bulgaria alone which made an eventual peace profitable for both Aron and Basil. The Bulgarian nobel asked for the Emperor's sister hand and Basil agreed but he tried to deceive Aron and sent him the wife of one of his nobles and the bishop of Sevast. However the attempted deceit was revealed and the bishop was killed, but the negotiations contunued nonetheless. In the end Samuil learned for the secret negotiations and on 14 June 976 Aron together with his all kin were executed in the vicinity of Dupnitsa. Only his eldest son Ivan Vladislav, who eventually became the last Emperor of the Empire was spared due to the vindication of Samuil's son Gavril Radomir. Ironically, Ivan Vladislav murderred his saviour 39 years later. (Wikipedia.)
M, b. circa 910, d. 970
- Birth: Comita Nikola was born circa 910.
- Death: He died in 970.
Ripsimia of Armenia
F, b. circa 910
- Birth: Ripsimia of Armenia was born circa 910.
Ashot II "the Iron" of Armenia
M, b. circa 870, d. 928
- Birth: Ashot II "the Iron" of Armenia was born circa 870 in Armenia.
- Death: He died in 928.
Marie of Kachum
F, b. circa 870
- Birth: Marie of Kachum was born circa 870.
Smbat I "the Martyr" of Armenia
M, b. 850, d. 912
- Birth: Smbat I "the Martyr" of Armenia was born in 850 in Armenia.
- Death: He died in 912, at age ~62.
- Note: He was King of Armenia (890 – 912) of the Bagratuni dynasty, son of Ashot I and the father of Ashot II Yerkat and Abas I. His rule was a period of unending wars against the Arab conquerors and the rebellious Armenian nobles. He fought with mixed success against Afshin, the Caliph's representative in Atropatene, but was defeated by Yusuf, Afshin's brother. Late in his rule he was betrayed by Gagik Artsruni and Sparapet Ashot who proclaimed themselves independent from Smbat's rule. In 912, Smbat, isolated and deprived of support, surrendered to Yussouf and was murdered. (Wikipedia.)
Ashot I "the Great" of Armenia
M, b. circa 820, d. 890
- Birth: Ashot I "the Great" of Armenia was born circa 820 in Armenia.
- Death: He died in 890.
- Note: Ashot I Bagratuni was an Armenian prince, with Ashot II, oversaw Armenia's second golden age. He was born to Smbat the Confessor and was nicknamed 'the prince of princes'.
His family, the Bagratunis, was one of the most powerful in the kingdom along with the Artsruni. Both families were struggling for power through warfare against Arab invaders. His crowning was consented to by Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tamid in 885, a move to prevent intrusion into the Armenian territory by Basil I Byzantine emperor, an Armenian. He was succeeded by his son, Smbat I. He reigned for five years until 890 and was married to Katranide.
Ashot I was the first Bagratid King, the founder of the Royal dynasty. He was recognized as prince of princes by the court at Baghdad in 861, which provoked war with local Arab emirs. Ashot won the war, and was recognized as King of the Armenians by Baghdad in 885. Recognition from Constantinople followed in 886. These are the kings of the Bagratid kings of Armenia. (Wikipedia.)
Smbat "the Confessor" of Armenia
M, b. circa 790, d. 855
- Birth: Smbat "the Confessor" of Armenia was born circa 790 in Adrianople, Turkey.
- Death: He died in 855.
Ashot "Meateater" of Armenia
M, d. 824
- Death: Ashot "Meateater" of Armenia died in 824.
Smbat of Armenia
M, d. 804
- Death: Smbat of Armenia died in 804.
Ashot of Armenia
M, d. 782
- Death: Ashot of Armenia died in 782.