F, b. circa 930
- Birth: Sophia Phokaina was born circa 930.
M, b. circa 900
- Birth: Photeinos Skleros was born circa 900.
Gregoria of Byzantium
F, b. circa 900
- Birth: Gregoria of Byzantium was born circa 900.
Bardas of Byzantium
M, b. circa 810
- Birth: Bardas of Byzantium was born circa 810.
Konstantinos of Byzantium
M, b. circa 785
- Birth: Konstantinos of Byzantium was born circa 785 in Adrianople, Turkey.
Myakes of Adrianople
M, b. circa 750
- Birth: Myakes of Adrianople was born circa 750.
M, b. circa 900
- Birth: Leo Phokas was born circa 900.
M, b. circa 870
- Birth: Bardas Phokas was born circa 870.
Nikephoros "the Elder" Phokas
M, b. circa 840
- Birth: Nikephoros "the Elder" Phokas was born circa 840.
Rognwald of Polotsk
M, b. circa 936
- Birth: Rognwald of Polotsk was born circa 936 in Russia.
Renaud III of Burgundy
M, b. circa 1093, d. January 22, 1148
- Birth: Renaud III of Burgundy was born circa 1093.
- Marriage: He and Agatha of Lorraine were married in 1130.
- Death: Renaud III of Burgundy died on January 22, 1148.
- Note: The son of Etienne I (Tête-hardi) and Beatrix of Lorraine was count of Burgundy between 1127 and 1148. Previously, he had been titular count of Burgundy, 1102-1127 and count of Mâcon, 1127-1148 (with his brother William IV of Vienna). About 1130, he married Agatha (d. April 1147), daughter of Simon I, duke of Lorraine. He proclaimed independence from emperor Lothar II but was defeated by Conrad III and forced to relinquish all his lands east of the Jura. The name of the region Franche-Comté is derived from his title, franc-compte.
His single daughter Beatrix (~1145 - 15 November 1184, became countess of Burgundy in 1148 and married Emperor Frederic Barbarossa in 1156. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
Agatha of Lorraine
F, b. circa 1095, d. April 1147
- Birth: Agatha of Lorraine was born circa 1095.
- Marriage: She and Renaud III of Burgundy were married in 1130.
- Death: Agatha of Lorraine died in April 1147.
Simon I of Lorraine
M, b. 1076, d. January 13, 1138
- Birth: Simon I of Lorraine was born in 1076 in Alsace-Lorraine, France.
- Marriage: He and Adelaide of Leuven were married in 1112.
- Death: Simon I of Lorraine died on January 13, 1138, at age ~62, in Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France.
- Note: Simon I (1076 – 13 January 1138) was the duke of Lorraine from 1115 to his death, the eldest son and successor of Thierry II and Hedwige of Formbach. Continuatin the policy of friendship with the Holy Roman Emperor, he accompanied the Emperor Henry V to the Diet of Worms of 1122, where the Investiture Controversy was resolved.
He had stormy relations with the espiscopates of his realm: fighting with Stephen of Bar, bishop of Metz, and Adalberon, archbishop of Trier, both allies of the count of Bar, whose claim to Lorraine against Simon's father had been quashed by Henry V's father Henry IV. Though Adalberon excommunicated him, Pope Innocent II lifted it. He was a friend of Bernard of Clairvaux and he built many abbeys in his duchy, including that of Sturzelbronn in 1135. There was he interred after his original burial in Saint-Dié.
His wife was Adelaide (d.1158), daughter of Gerard of Supplinburg, count of Querfort, and sister of the Emperor Lothair II. (Wikipedia.)
Adelaide of Leuven
F, b. circa 1075, d. November 4, 1160
- Birth: Adelaide of Leuven was born circa 1075 in Brabant, Meuse, Lorraine, France.
- Marriage: She and Simon I of Lorraine were married in 1112.
- Death: Adelaide of Leuven died on November 4, 1160 in Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France.
Hedwig of Formbach
F, b. circa 1050
Frederick of Formbach
M, b. circa 1022
- Birth: Frederick of Formbach was born circa 1022.
Gertrude of Haldensleben
F, b. circa 1022, d. February 21, 1116
- Birth: Gertrude of Haldensleben was born circa 1022.
- Death: She died on February 21, 1116.
Isaac II Angelus
M, b. September 1156, d. 1204
- Birth: Isaac II Angelus was born in September 1156 in Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey.
- Death: He died in 1204, at age ~48, in Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey.
- Note: Byzantine Emperor and 1203-1204 He was the Byzantine emperor from 1185-1195, and again 1203-1204. He was a grandson of Theodora Comnena Porphyrogenita, youngest daughter of Emperor Alexius I, and thus a member of the extended imperial clan. In 1185, during Emperor Andronicus I Comnenus's absence from the capital, the latter's lieutenant ordered the arrest and execution of Isaac. Isaac escaped and took refuge in the church of Hagia Sophia. Andronicus, a capable ruler, was also hated for his efforts to keep the aristocracy obedient. The sanctuary-bound Isaac appealed to the populace, and a tumult arose which spread rapidly over the whole city. When Andronicus arrived he found that his power was overthrown, and that Isaac had been proclaimed emperor. Isaac delivered him over to his enemies, and he was killed on September 12, 1185. In order to strengthen his position as emperor, he sought a new wife, and in 1185 married Margaret of Hungary, daughter of king Bela III. Hungary was one of the empire's largest and most powerful neighbours, and Margaret also had the benefit of high aristocratic descent, being related to the royal families of Kiev, the Holy Roman Empire, Italy, Provence, and the previous Byzantine emperors (unlike Isaac himself, who was descended from the Comneni, a family of the lower nobility). Isaac inaugurated his reign with a decisive victory over the Normans in Sicily, but elsewhere his policy was less successful. He failed in an attempt to recover Cyprus from the rebellious noble Isaac Comnenos, thanks to Norman interference. The oppressiveness of his taxes drove the Bulgarians and Vlachs to revolt (1186). In 1187, Alexius Branas, the general sent against the rebels, treacherously turned his arms against his master, and attempted to seize Constantinople, but was defeated and slain. The emperor's attention was next demanded in the east, where several claimants to the throne successively rose and fell. In 1189 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor sought and obtained leave to lead his troops on the Third Crusade through the Byzantine Empire; but he had no sooner crossed the border than Isaac, who had meanwhile sought an alliance with Saladin, threw every impediment in his way, and was only compelled by force of arms to fulfil his engagements. The next five years were disturbed by fresh rebellions of the Vlachs, against whom Isaac led several expeditions in person. During one of these, in 1195, Alexius Angelos, the emperor's elder brother, taking advantage of the latter's absence from camp on a hunting expedition, proclaimed himself emperor, and was readily recognised by the soldiers. Isaac was blinded and imprisoned in Constantinople. After eight years, he was raised from his dungeon to his throne once more after the arrival of the Fourth Crusade. But both mind and body had been enfeebled by captivity, and his son Alexius IV was the actual monarch. Isaac died in 1204, shortly after the usurpation of his general, Mourzouphles. Isaac has the reputation of one of the weakest and most vicious princes that occupied the Byzantine throne. Surrounded by a crowd of slaves, mistresses and flatterers, he permitted his empire to be administered by unworthy favourites, while he squandered the money wrung from his provinces on costly buildings and expensive gifts to the churches of his metropolis. The identity of Isaac's first wife is unknown, but her name, Herina, is found on the necrology of Speyer Cathedral, where their daughter Irene is interred. His wife Herina may have been a member of the Palaeologus family; she was dead or divorced by 1185, when Isaac remarried. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
Eirene of Komnena
F, b. circa 1156, d. 1185
- Birth: Eirene of Komnena was born circa 1156.
- Death: She died in 1185.
M, b. 1115, d. 1185
- Birth: Andronicus Angelus was born in 1115 in Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey.
- Death: He died in 1185, at age ~70.
F, b. 1125
- Birth: Euphrosyne Castamonita was born in 1125.
M, b. 1085
- Birth: Constantinus Angelus was born in 1085 in Philadelphia, Turkey.
F, b. 1097, d. February 20, 1116
- Birth: Theodora Comnena was born in 1097 in Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey.
- Death: She died on February 20, 1116, at age ~19.
- Note: Theodora married Constantine Angelus of Philidelphia. Her father was succeeded by her brother John; John by his son Manual; Manuel by his son Alexius II; Alexius was killed and succeeded by Andronicus the Tyrant, who was succeeded by her son, Andronicus Angelus. (Kin of Mellcene Thurman Smith, page 443)
Theodora Komnene, who married (1) Constantine Kourtikes and (2) Constantine Angelos. By him she was the grandmother of Emperors Isaac II Angelos and Alexios III Angelos.
Anna was born in the purple chamber of the imperial palace of Constantinople. She was the eldest of nine children. Her younger siblings were (in order of birth) Maria Komnene, John II Komnenos, Andronikos Komnenos, Isaac Komnenos, Eudokia Komnene, Theodora Komnene, Manuel Komnenos and Zoe Komnene. (Wikipedia.)
M, b. circa 1055
- Birth: Manuel Angelus was born circa 1055.
Alexis I Comnenus
M, b. 1048, d. August 15, 1118
- Birth: Alexis I Comnenus was born in 1048 in Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey.
- Marriage: He and Irene Ducaena were married in 1078.
- Death: Alexis I Comnenus died on August 15, 1118, at age ~70.
- Note: Byzantine Emperor He was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). His father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, who was accordingly succeeded by four emperors of other families between 1059 and 1081. Under one of these emperors, Romanus IV Diogenes (1067–1071), he served with distinction against the Seljuk Turks. Under Michael VII Parapinaces (1071–1078) and Nicephorus III Botaniates (1078–1081) he was also employed, along with his elder brother Isaac, against rebels in Asia Minor, Thrace and in Epirus in 1071. The success of the Comneni roused the jealousy of Botaniates and his ministers, and the Comneni were almost compelled to take up arms in self-defence. Botaniates was forced to abdicate and retire to a monastery, and Isaac declined the crown in favour of his younger brother Alexius, who then became emperor at the age of 33. By that time Alexius was the lover of the Empress Maria Bagrationi, a daughter of king Bagrat IV of Georgia who was successively married to Michael VII Ducas and his successor Botaniates, and was renowned for her beauty. Alexius and Maria lived almost openly together at the Palace of Mangana, and Alexius had Michael VII and Maria's young son, the prince Constantine Ducas, adopted and proclaimed heir to the throne. The affair conferred to Alexius a degree of dynastic legitimacy, but soon his mother Anna Dalassena consolidated the Ducas family connection by arranging the Emperor's wedding with Irene Ducaena or Doukaina, granddaughter of the caesar John Ducas, head of a powerful feudal family and the "kingmaker" behind Michael VII. Alexius' involvement with Maria continued and shortly after his daughter Anna Comnena was born, she was betrothed to Constantine Ducas and moved to live at the Mangana Palace with him and Maria. The situation however changed drastically when John II Comnenus was born: Anna's engagement to Constantine was dissolved, she was moved to the main Palace to live with her mother and grandmother, Constantine's status as heir was terminated and Alexius became estranged with Maria, now stripped of her imperial title. Shortly afterwards, the teenager Constantine died and Maria was confined to a convent. Alexius' long reign of nearly 37 years was full of struggle. At the very outset he had to meet the formidable attack of the Normans (Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemund), who took Dyrrhachium and Corfu, and laid siege to Larissa in Thessaly (see Battle of Dyrrhachium). The Norman danger ended for the time with Robert Guiscard's death in 1085, and the conquests were reversed. He had next to repel the invasions of Pechenegs and Cumans in Thrace, with whom the Manichaean sect of the Bogomils made common cause; and thirdly, he had to cope with the fast-growing power of the Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor. Above all he had to meet the difficulties caused by the arrival of the knights of the First Crusade, which had been, to a great degree, initiated as the result of the representations of his own ambassadors, whom he had sent to Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza in 1095. The help which he wanted from the West was simply mercenary forces and not the immense hosts which arrived, to his consternation and embarrassment. The first group, under Peter the Hermit, he dealt with by sending them on to Asia Minor, where they were massacred by the Turks in 1096. The second and much more serious host of knights, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, he also led into Asia, promising to supply them with provisions in return for an oath of homage, and by their victories recovered for the Byzantine Empire a number of important cities and islands—Nicaea, Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, Philadelphia, Sardis, and in fact most of Asia Minor (1097–1099). This is ascribed by his daughter Anna as a credit to his policy and diplomacy, but by the Latin historians of the crusade as a sign of his treachery and falseness. The crusaders believed their oaths were made invalid when Alexius did not help them during the siege of Antioch; Bohemund, who had set himself up as Prince of Antioch, briefly went to war with Alexius, but agreed to become Alexius' vassal under the Treaty of Devol in 1108. During the last twenty years of his life he lost much of his popularity. The years were marked by persecution of the followers of the Paulician and Bogomil heresies—one of his last acts was to burn Basilius, a Bogomil leader, with whom he had engaged in a theological controversy; by renewed struggles with the Turks (1110–1117); and by anxieties as to the succession, which his wife Irene wished to alter in favour of her daughter Anna's husband, Nicephorus Bryennius, for whose benefit the special title panhypersebastos ("honored above all") was created. This intrigue disturbed even his dying hours. Alexius was for many years under the strong influence of an eminence grise, his mother Anna Dalassena, a wise and immensely able politician whom, in a uniquely irregular fashion, he had crowned as Empress Augusta instead of the rightful claimant to the title, his wife Irene. Dalassena was the effective administrator of the Empire during Alexius' long absences in war campaigns: she was constantly at odds with her daughter-in-law and had assumed total responsibility for the upbringing and education of her granddaughter Anna Comnena. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)