Strezislava of Bohemia
F, b. circa 711
- Birth: Strezislava of Bohemia was born circa 711 in Prague, Czech Republic.
Nezamysl of Bohemia
M, b. circa 680, d. 783
- Birth: Nezamysl of Bohemia was born circa 680 in Prague, Czech Republic.
- Death: He died in 783.
Hruba of Bohemia
F, b. circa 680
- Birth: Hruba of Bohemia was born circa 680.
Premysl of Bohemia
M, b. circa 650, d. 745
- Birth: Premysl of Bohemia was born circa 650 in Prague, Czech Republic.
- Death: He died in 745.
- Note: The Czechs name Premysl (Premysl or Przemysl) as the reputed ancestor of the line of dukes and kings which ruled in the Czech lands from 873 or earlier until the murder of Wenceslaus III in 1306. Premysl thus founded the Premyslid dynasty.
According to a legend, Premysl was a peasant of village Stadice who attracted the notice of Libuše, daughter of a certain Krok, who ruled over a large part of Bohemia. Premysl married Libuše, the traditional foundress of Prague, and during the 8th century became prince of the Bohemian Czechs. His family became extinct in the male line when Wenceslaus III died, but through females the title to Bohemia passed from the Premyslids to the Luxembourgs and later to the houses of Jagiello, Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine. (Wikipedia.)
Libuse of Bohemia
F, b. circa 650
- Birth: Libuse of Bohemia was born circa 650.
- Note: Duchess of Bohemia Libuše (Czech; in German Libussa or Libuscha) is a mythical ancestor of the Premyslid dynasty and the Czech people as whole. According to legend, she founded Prague during the 8th century.
Libuše is said to have been the daughter of the equally mythical Czech ruler Krok, and the youngest sister among his other daughters, the healer Kazi and the magician Teta. She was chosen by her father as his successor. Later she married Premysl the Plower and became the mother of Nezamysl. Libuše was the wisest of the three sisters and prophicized the foundation of Prague from her castle Libušín (according to later legends Vyšehrad).
The mythical figure of Libuše gave material for several dramatic works, including a tragedy by Franz Grillparzer and an opera by Bedrich Smetana. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
Krok of Bohemia
M, b. circa 620
- Birth: Krok of Bohemia was born circa 620 in Prague, Czech Republic.
Czech of Bohemia
M, b. circa 590
- Birth: Czech of Bohemia was born circa 590 in Prague, Czech Republic.
- Note: According to an old legend, Lech, Czech and Rus were eponymous brothers who founded the three Slavic nations: Poland (formerly also known as Lechia), Cechy or Cesko (known also as Bohemia - now the Czech Republic) and Ruthenia (Rus') respectively. In one of the legend's variations, the three brothers went hunting together but each of them followed a different prey and eventually they all travelled in different directions. Rus went to the east, Czech headed to the west to settle on the Ríp Mountain rising up from the Bohemian hilly countryside, while Lech travelled to the north until he came across a magnificent white eagle guarding her nest. Startled but impressed by this spectacle, he decided to settle there. He named his settlement (gród) Gniezno (early Polish for "nest") and adopted the White Eagle as his coat-of-arms which remains a symbol of Poland to this day. Other variations of Lech's name include: Lechus, Lachus, Lestus and Leszek. Czech, or Praotec Cech (Forefather Cech) also comes under the Latin name Bohemus or German Böhm.
The earliest mention of Lech, Czech and Rus is found in the Chronicle of Greater Poland written in 1295 in Gniezno or Poznan. In Bohemian chronicles, Czech appears on his own; he is first mentioned as Bohemus in Cosmas's chronicle in early 12th century. The legend suggests the common ancestry of the Poles, the Czechs and the Ruthenians (or modern-day Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians) and illustrates the fact that as early as the 13th century, at least three different Slavic peoples were aware of being racially- and linguistically-interrelated, and, indeed, derived from a common root stock. The legend also attempts to explain the etymology of these people's ethnonyms: Lechia (another name for Poland), the Czech lands (including Bohemia and Moravia), and Rus' (Ruthenia). In fact, the term "Lechia" derives from the tribe of Ledzianie (see: Poland's name). See also: Etymology of Rus and derivatives.
Lech, Czech and Rus are also the names given to three large oaks in the garden adjacent to the palace in Rogalin, Greater Poland. Each of them is more than 500 years old. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
M, b. circa 827
- Birth: Slavibor Zupan was born circa 827 in Psov, Melnik, Czechoslovakia.
Ezzo of Lotharingia
M, b. 955, d. March 21, 1034
- Birth: Ezzo of Lotharingia was born in 955 in Lorraine, France.
- Death: He died on March 21, 1034, at age ~79, in Saalfeld, Thuringia, Germany.
- Note: He was the son of Hermann (d. c. 1000), also a count palatine in Lorraine who had possessions in the neighbourhood of Bonn.
Ezzo, sometimes called Erenfried, (born about 955; died March 21, 1034), Count Palatine of Lotharingia, was the son of Hermann I "Pusillus" (the Slender), also a Count Palatine in Lotharingia who governed in several counties along the Rhine (Bonngau, Eifelgau, Mieblgau, Zulpichgau, Keldachgau and Auelgau).
Having married Mathilda (died 1025), a daughter of Emperor Otto II and Theophanu, Ezzo became prominent during the reign of his brother-in-law, Emperor Otto III. His power was increased due to the liberal grant of lands in Thuringia and Franconia which he his wife received out of Ottonian possessions. Candidate to the imperial throne at the death of Otto III, he received huge territories (Kaiserswerth, Duisburg, and Saalfeld) for renouncing to the throne, making him the most powerful man in the empire after the emperor. Otto's successor, Emperor Henry II, was less friendly towards the powerful count, although there was no serious trouble between them until 1011. Some disturbances in Lotharingia quickly forced the emperor to come to terms, and Ezzo's assistance was purchased with additional imperial fiefs.
After this, the relations between Henry and his vassal appear to have been satisfactory. Very little is known about Ezzo's later life, but we are told that he died at a great age at Saalfeld on 21 March 1034.
Ezzo founded the Brauweiler Abbey near Cologne, the place where his marriage had been celebrated. It was dedicated in 1028 by Piligrim, archbishop of Cologne. Ezzo and his wife were buried at Brauweiler. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
Mathilde of Saxony
F, b. 979, d. 1025
- Birth: Mathilde of Saxony was born in 979.
- Death: She died in 1025, at age ~46.
Herman I "the Slender" of Lotharingia
M, b. circa 931
- Birth: Herman I "the Slender" of Lotharingia was born circa 931.
- Note: Hermann I "Pusillus" (the Slender) († 996) count palatine of Lotharingia from 945 until 996, count in the Bonngau, Eifelgau and Mieblgau, count in Auelgau, Zülpichgau and Keldachgau, count of Alzey, son of Erenfried II and Richwara of Zulpichgau.
He married Heylwig von Dillingen, daughter of Hucbald II von Dillingen († 909) and Dietbirg of Swabia, parent to Pope Leon IX. He left four sons and one daughter. (Wikipedia.)
Heylwig of Dillingen
F, b. circa 1000
- Birth: Heylwig of Dillingen was born circa 1000.
Erenfried II of Zulpichgau
M, b. circa 905
- Birth: Erenfried II of Zulpichgau was born circa 905.
Richwara of Zulpichgau
F, b. circa 905
- Birth: Richwara of Zulpichgau was born circa 905.
Hucbald II of Dillingen
M, b. circa 970
- Birth: Hucbald II of Dillingen was born circa 970.
Dietbirg of Swabia
F, b. circa 970
- Birth: Dietbirg of Swabia was born circa 970.
Burchard von Rathien
M, b. circa 940
- Birth: Burchard von Rathien was born circa 940.
Liutgard von Sachsen
F, b. circa 940
- Birth: Liutgard von Sachsen was born circa 940.
Otto II "the Red" of Germany
M, b. 955, d. December 7, 983
- Birth: Otto II "the Red" of Germany was born in 955 in Saxony, Germany.
- Marriage: He and Theophanu of Constantinople were married on April 14, 972 in Rome, Italy.
- Death: Otto II "the Red" of Germany died on December 7, 983, at age ~28, in Rome, Italy.
- Note: Otto II (955 – December 7, 983, Rome), called the Red, was the third ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty, the son of Otto the Great and Adelaide of Italy. He received a good education under the care of his uncle, Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, and his illegitimate half-brother, William, archbishop of Mainz. At first only co-reigning with his father, he was chosen German king at Worms in 961, crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on 26 May 961, and on 25 December 967 was crowned joint emperor at Rome by Pope John XIII.
He married Theophanu, niece of the Eastern Roman Emperor John I Tzimisces, on April 14, 972. After participating in his father's campaigns in Italy, he returned to Germany and became sole emperor on the death of his father in May 973, without meeting any opposition. Otto spent his reign continuing his father's policy of strengthening imperial rule in Germany and extending it deeper into Italy.
After suppressing a rising in Lorraine, difficulties arose in southern Germany, probably owing to Otto's refusal to grant the duchy of Swabia to Henry II of Bavaria. In 974 Henry's mother, Judith, set up a conspiracy against the emperor, which included Henry, Bishop Abraham of Freising, the dukes of Bohemia and Poland, and several members of the clergy and the nobility who were discontented by the previous emperor's policies. The plan was discovered and easily suppressed, however. In the same year, Otto's forces successfully opposed an attempt by Harald III of Denmark to throw off the German yoke; however, his expedition against the Bohemians in 975 was a partial failure owing to the outbreak of further trouble in Bavaria. The following year he restored order for the second time in Lorraine and forced Henry II to flee from Regensburg to Bohemia, Bavaria being assigned to his relative Otto of Bavaria. In 977 the king made another expedition into Bohemia, where King Boleslaus II promised to return to his earlier allegiance. Also Mieszko I of Poland submitted. See also War of the Three Henries).
After Otto had crushed an attempt by Henry to regain Bavaria, King Lothair of France invaded Lorraine with an army of 20,000 and occupied the capital Aachen for five days. Otto retired first to Cologne and then to Saxony. His mother, who was of French origin, sided with Lothair and moved to Bourgogne. In September 978, having mustered 30,000 men, Otto retaliated by invading France. He met with little resistance, but sickness among his troops compelled him to raise the siege of Paris, and on the return journey the rearguard of his army was destroyed and the baggage seized by the French. An expedition against the Poles was followed by peace with France: Lothair renounced his claim on Lorraine (980), and in exchange Otto recognized the rights of Lothair's son Louis.
Otto therefore felt himself free to travel to Italy. The government of Germany was left to arch-chancellor Willigis and to duke Bernard I of Saxony. He was accompanied by his wife, his son, Otto of Bavaria, the bishops of Worms, Metz and Merseburg and numerous other counts and barons. Crossing the Alps in what is today Switzerland, he reconciled with his mother at Pavia and then celebrated the Christmas of 980 in Ravenna.
Pope Benedict VI, elected by his father, had been imprisoned by the Romans in Castel Sant'Angelo, where he had died in 974. His successor Benedict VI had fled to Constantinople and now pope was Benedict VII, former bishop of Sutri. Preceded by the latter, Otto entered in Rome on Easter day of 981.
Otto held in the city a splendid court, attended by princes and nobles from all parts of western Europe. He was next required to punish inroads of the Saracens on the Italian mainland and, most of all, the aggressive policy of the Sicilian emir Abu al-Qasim, whose fleet was harassing Apulia and whose troops had invaded Calabria. In September 981 Otto marched into southern Italy. He was first entangled in the quarrels between the local Lombard princes who had divided the area after Pandulf Ironhead's death. Otto unsuccessfully besieged Manso I of Amalfi in Salerno, but in the end obtained the recognition of his authority from all the Lombard principalities. In January 982 the German troops marched towards the Byzantine Apulia to annex this region as well to the Western Empire.
When Otto moved from Taranto, he met with a severe defeat near Stilo in July 982 (in which, among the others, al-Qasim was killed). Without revealing his identity, the emperor escaped on a Greek vessel to Rossano. He returned to Rome on November 12, 982.
At a diet held at Verona in June 983, largely attended by German and Italian princes, he had Otto III confirmed as king of Germany and prepared a new campaign against the Saracens. He also obtained a settlement with the Republic of Venice, whose help was much needed after the defeat of Stilo. Proceeding to Rome, Otto secured the election of Peter of Pavia as Pope John XIV.
Just as the news reached him of a general rising of the Slav tribes on the eastern frontier of Germany, he died in his palace in Rome on 7 December 983. He was survived by the future emperor Otto III and three daughters. He was buried in the atrium of St. Peter's Basilica, and when the church was rebuilt his remains were removed to the crypt, where his tomb can still be seen.
Otto, who is sometimes called the "Red", was a man of small stature, by nature brave and impulsive, and by training an accomplished knight. He was generous to the church and aided the spread of Christianity in many ways. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
Theophanu of Constantinople
F, b. 960, d. June 15, 991
- Birth: Theophanu of Constantinople was born in 960 in Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey.
- Marriage: She and Otto II "the Red" of Germany were married on April 14, 972 in Rome, Italy.
- Death: Theophanu of Constantinople died on June 15, 991, at age ~31.
- Note: Byzantine Princess niece of the Eastern Roman Emperor John I Tzimisces. Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor had requested a Greek princess for his son, Otto, to seal a treaty between the Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire. Theophanu duly arrived in 972, arriving in grand style with a magnificent escort and bearing great treasure. However, according to the chronicler Thietmar, she was not the virgo desiderata, the Imperial princess, that was expected. Theophanu is identified in the marriage contract as the neptis (niece or granddaughter) of Emperor John I Tzimisces. At one time it was believed Theophanu was the daughter of the Emperor Romanus III, but no mention is made of her being porphyrogenita, purple-born, nor are her parents identified. It is unlikely that Theophanu was the daughter of any emperor -- the current theory is that her father was Konstantinos Skleros (brother of the pretender Bardos Skleros) and her mother was Sophia Phokaina (niece of Emperor Nicephorus II and the sister of Tzimisces' wife Maria Skleraina). Theophanu and Otto were married by Pope John XIII on April 14, 972 at Saint Peter's and she was crowned the same day in Rome. Theophanu accompanied her husband on all his journeys, and issued diplomas in her own name as Empress. It is known she was frequently at odds with her mother-in-law, Adelaide of Italy, and this caused an estrangement between Otto II and Adelaide. According to Odilo, Abbot of Cluny, Adelaide was very happy when "that Greek woman" died. Albert of Metz describes Theophanu as being an unpleasant and talkative woman. Theophanu was also criticized for introducing luxurious garments and jewelry into Germany. The theologian Peter Damian even asserts that Theophanu had a love affair with John Philagathos, a Greek monk who briefly reigned as Antipope John XVI. Otto II died suddenly on December 7, 983 and was buried in Rome. That Christmas Theophanu had their three-year-old son crowned as Otto III, with herself ruling as Empress Regent on his behalf. Henry II, Duke of Bavaria seized Otto in spring 984, but was forced to surrender the child to his mother. With the cooperation of Willigis, Archbishop of Mainz, and Hildebald, Bishop of Worms, Theophanu reigned until her death in 991. She was buried in the church of Saint Pantaleon at Cologne. Because Otto III was still a child, his grandmother Adelaide of Italy took over the regency until Otto III became old enough to rule on his own. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
Basileios of Byzantium
M, b. circa 840
- Birth: Basileios of Byzantium was born circa 840.
- Note: 1st Holy Roman Emperor He was the son of Henry I the Fowler, king of the Germans, and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of the Germans and arguably the first Holy Roman Emperor. (While Charlemagne had been crowned emperor in 800, his empire was divided amongst his grandsons, and following the assassination of Berengar of Friuli in 924, the imperial title lay vacant for nearly forty years.) Otto succeeded his father as king of the Germans in 936. He arranged for his coronation to be held in Charlemagne's former capital, Aachen. According to the Saxon historian Widukind of Corvey, at his coronation banquet he had the four other dukes of the empire, those of Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria and Lorraine, act as his personal attendants, Arnulf I of Bavaria as marshall (or stablemaster), Herman of Swabia as cupbearer (lat. pincerna or buticularius), Eberhard III of Franconia as steward, and Gilbert of Lorraine as chamberlain. In 938, a rich vein of silver was discovered at the Rammelsberg in Saxony. This ore body would provide much of Europe's silver, copper, and lead for the next two hundred years, and this mineral wealth helped fund Otto's activities throughout his reign. Otto's early reign was marked by a series of ducal revolts. In 938, Eberhard, the new duke of Bavaria, refused to pay Otto homage. When Otto deposed him in favor of his uncle Berthold, Eberhard of Franconia revolted, together with several of the Saxon nobility, who tried to depose Otto in favor of his elder half-brother Thankmar (son of Henry's first wife Hatheburg). While Otto was able to defeat and kill Thankmar in 936, the revolt continued the next year when Gilbert, the Duke of Lorraine, swore fealty to King Louis IV of France. Meanwhile, Otto's younger brother Henry conspired with the Archbishop of Mainz to assassinate him. The rebellion ended in 939 with Otto's victory at the Battle of Andernach, where the dukes of Franconia and Lorraine both perished. Henry fled to France, and Otto responded by supporting Hugh the Great in his campaign against the French crown, but in 941 Otto and Henry were reconciled through the efforts of their mother, and the next year Otto withdrew from France after Louis recognized his suzerainty over Lorraine.
To prevent further revolts, Otto arranged for all the important duchies in the German kingdom to be held by close family members. He kept the now-vacant duchy of Franconia as a personal fiefdom, while in 944 he bestowed the duchy of Lorraine upon Conrad the Red, who later married his daughter Liutgard. Meanwhile, he arranged for his son Liutdolf to marry Ida, the daughter of Duke Herman of Swabia, and to inherit that duchy when Herman died in 947. A similar arrangement led to Henry becoming duke of Bavaria in 949. Meanwhile, Italy had fallen into political chaos. On the death (950), possibly by poisoning, of Lothair of Arles, the Italian throne was inherited by a woman, Adelaide of Italy, the respective daughter, daughter-in-law, and widow of the last three kings of Italy. A local noble, Berengar of Ivrea, declared himself king of Italy, abducted Adelaide, and tried to legitimize his reign by forcing Adelaide to marry his son Adalbert. However, Adelaide escaped to Canossa and requested German intervention. Luitdolf and Henry independently invaded northern Italy to take advantage of the situation, but in 951 Otto frustrated his son's and his brother's ambitions by invading Italy himself, forcing Berengar to swear fealty, and then, having been widowed since 946, marrying Adelaide. This marriage triggered another revolt. When Adelaide bore a son, Luitdolf feared for his position as Otto's heir, and in 953 he rebelled in league with Conrad the Red and the Archbishop of Mainz. While Otto was initially successful in reasserting his authority in Lorraine, he was captured while attacking Mainz, and by the next year, the rebellion had spread throughout the kingdom. However, Conrad and Luitdolf erred by allying themselves with the Magyars. Extensive Magyar raids in southern Germany in 954 compelled the German nobles to reunite, and at the Diet of Auerstadt, Conrad and Luitdolf were stripped of their titles and Otto's authority reestablished. In 955, Otto cemented his authority by routing Magyar forces at the Battle of Lechfeld. Otto unsuccessfully campaigned in southern Italy on several occasions from 966-972, although in 972, the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimisces recognized Otto's imperial title and agreed to a marriage between Otto's son and heir Otto II and his niece Theophano. After his death in 973 he was buried next to his first wife Edith of Wessex in the Cathedral of Magdeburg. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
Adelaide of Italy
F, b. 931, d. December 16, 999
- Birth: Adelaide of Italy was born in 931 in Burgundy, France.
- Marriage: She and Otto I Emperor Holy Roman Empire were married in 951.
- Death: Adelaide of Italy died on December 16, 999, at age ~68, in Seltz, Alsace, France.
- Note: She bore him three sons and one daughter. She was the daughter of Rudolf II of Burgundy, King of Italy. Her first marriage was to Lothar, King of Italy, and was part of a political settlement designed to conclude a peace between her father, Rudolf II, and Hugh of Provence, the father of Lothar. The Calendar of Saints states that her first husband was poisoned by his successor, Berengar of Ivrea, who attempted to cement his political power by forcing her to marry his son; when she refused, she was imprisioned for four months, and escaped to Canossa, where she threw herself on the mercy of King Otto I the Great; they subsequently married in 951 . They had four children: Henry, born in 952; Bruno, born 953; Matilda, Abbess of Quedlinburg, born about 954; and Otto II, later Holy Roman Emperor, born 955. When her husband Otto I died in 973 he was succeeded by their son Otto II, and Adelaide for some years exercised a powerful influence at court. Later, however, her daughter-in-law, the Byzantine princess Theophano, turned her husband against his mother, and she was driven from court. Finally a reconciliation was effected, and in 983 Otto appointed her his viceroy in Italy. However, Otto died the same year, and although both mother and grandmother were appointed as co-regents for the child-king, Otto III, Theophano forced Adelaide to abdicate and exiled her. When Theophano died in 991, Adelaide was restored the regency of her grandson. She was assisted by Willigis, bishop of Mainz. In 995 Otto III came of age, and Adelaide was free to devote herself exclusively to works of charity, notably the foundation or restoration of religious houses. Adelaide had long entertained close relations with Cluny, then the center of the movement for ecclesiastical reform and in particular with its abbots Majolus and Odilo. She retired to the convent of Seltz near Cologne. Though she never became a nun, she spent the rest of her days there in prayer. On her way to Burgundy to support her nephew Rudolf III against a rebellion, she died at a monastery she had founded Seltz in the Alsace on December 16, 999. She had constantly devoted herself to the service of the church and peace, and to the empire as guardian of both; she also interested herself in the conversion of the Slavs. She was thus a principal agent—almost an embodiment—of the work of the Catholic Church during the Early Middle Ages in the construction of the religion-culture of western Europe. Her feast day is still kept in many German dioceses. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
Bardas of Byzantium
M, b. circa 870
- Birth: Bardas of Byzantium was born circa 870.
F, b. circa 785
- Birth: Pankalo was born circa 785.
M, b. circa 930
- Birth: Konstantinos Skleros was born circa 930.