Little Chute Historical Society

www.littlechutehistory.org

Person Page 2,559

Eustace De Picquigny

M, b. circa 1020, d. 1085

Parents

Family:

Biography

  • Birth: Eustace De Picquigny was born circa 1020.
  • Death: He died in 1085.

Edward I Plantagenet King Of ("Longshanks") England

M, b. June 17, 1239, d. July 7, 1307

Parents

Family 1: Eleanor Of Castile, Queen Of England, (b. circa 1240, d. November 29, 1290)

Family 2: Margaret of France (b. 1282, d. February 14, 1317)

Biography

  • Birth: Edward I Plantagenet King Of ("Longshanks") England was born on June 17, 1239 in Westminster, London, Middlesex, England.
  • Marriage: He and Eleanor Of Castile, Queen Of England, were married on October 18, 1254 in Burgos, Burgos, Spain.
  • Marriage: Edward I Plantagenet King Of ("Longshanks") England and Margaret of France were married on September 8, 1299 in Canterbury, Kent, England.
  • Death: Edward I Plantagenet King Of ("Longshanks") England died on July 7, 1307, at age 68, in Burgh on The Sands, Cumberland, England.
  • Note: NOTES: Reign: 1272-1307; Of the Plantagenets, House of Anjou. In 1270 Edward left England to join the Seventh Crusade. The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time (at age 68) to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on 7 Jul 1307.

    Reigned 1272-1307. In the Barons war 1264-67 he defeated the Barons at Evesham (1265) as King he is noted for encouraging Parliamentary institutions at the expence of feaudalism and for subdueing Wales on which he imposed the English system of administration. He later tried to assert his authority over Scotland and died while on his way to fight Robert Bruce. source: LDS Ancestry files & Hull Univ, UK database

    He was born in Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III, and at 15 married Eleanor of Castile. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade. Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad, Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned.

    The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England.

    On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd, ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. War between England and France broke out in 1293 as a result of the efforts of France to curb Edward's power in Gascony. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion.

    Greater than either of these problems was the disaffection of the people of Scotland. In agreeing to arbitrate among the claimants to the Scottish throne, Edward, in 1291, had exacted as a prior condition the recognition by all concerned of his overlordship of Scotland. The Scots later repudiated him and made an alliance with France against England. To meet the critical situations in Wales and Scotland, Edward summoned a parliament, called the Model Parliament by historians because it was a representative body and in that respect was the forerunner of all future parliaments. Assured by Parliament of support at home, Edward took the field and suppressed the Welsh insurrection. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. In 1298 he again invaded Scotland to suppress the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. In winning the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, Edward achieved the greatest military triumph of his career, but he failed to crush Scottish opposition.

    The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy, and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1299 Edward made peace with France and married Margaret, half-sister of King Philip IV of France. Thus freed of war, he again undertook the conquest of Scotland in 1303. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as King of Scotland. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on July 7, 1307.

    "Edward I," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 97 Encyclopedia. (c) 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Notes Edward I, (Longshanks) was King of England (1272-1307) conquering Wales and warring with Scotland. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade. Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad, Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned. On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd, ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. His Model Parliament of 1295 is sometimes considered England's first full parliament. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion. Edward was a special child to his father. He was born very late in Henry's life. He was named after the canon, Edward the Confessor, and although his title says Edward I, there were three Edwards previous to him. It was Henry who arranged for the important marriage of Edward to Eleanor, the half-sister of Alfonso X, King of Castile and Leon. It was an arranged marriage which bore many children and was full of love. Edward was made Overlord of Ireland, before he became King, and was responsible for Gascony and Wales. He was a typically spoiled adolescent, and liked to spend his time setting up jousting tournaments, in which many lives would be lost at a time. However though he had once recognized the justice of Simon de Montfort's stance against his father, he rallied to help his father. It was his role as a general that helped quash De Montfort, and after this he became an exemplary figure in the ruling of England. He was his father's Regent and succeeded unchallenged to the throne. He did not become King until the age of 35 and was devoted to personal and political integrity. He was a devoted ruler of England and developed state relations all around the world. He also fought many wars and used a great deal of the funds of England in these battles. He borrowed heavily from the Jews in England. They were expert currency manipulators. The King had tried to involve them in more productive occupations, but against all local feeling, and the lack of profit to be attained, the Jews went back to their old vocations. In 1290 Edward expelled the Jews from England. Being unable to borrow money, Edward had to impose high taxes on the local populations, which was of course highly unpopular. After having defeated and slain the last Welsh Prince of Wales, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, Edward offered his baby son to the Welsh people as the Prince of Wales, in a symbolic gesture. The Welsh gave the English knowledge of the long bow, one of the most valued weapons before gunpowder, and Edward encouraged its use. The pacification of the Welsh was not instant, and it took years for the land and power to be delegated in face of harsh resentment. War with Scotland was causing great problems. It concerned an attempt to reconcile the center of Scotland from Edinburgh to Scone, the natural but unrecognized seat of Scotland. When Alexander III, King of Scotland died, the crown passed to his three year old grand daughter, Margaret. When Margaret was aged six, Edward arranged for her to be betrothed to his heir Edward, which would have led to a peaceful union of England and Scotland. Margaret died in a ship wreck on the way to her coronation in Scotland, then the succession to the crown was disputed. Edward stepped in to arbitrate and with a balanced Commission took eighteen months to choose John Balliol. This decision led to a revolt, which Edward managed to overcome. He declared himself King of Scotland and carried the Coronation Stone of Scotland from Scone Palace off to England. It was this that led to the revolt by William Wallace who was eventually defeated by Edward. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as king of Scotland. In 1306 Robert the Bruce was declared King of the Scots by the Scottish people and in the ensuing war he was at first defeated by Edward. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died enroute near Carlisle on July 7, 1307 Edward died at Burgh by Sands, after being the monarch of England for 35 years. Henry was a good husband and loved his children and it was his offspring that provided England with two of the greatest monarchs of all time. But it is difficult to understand with all the aggressive stances he took, how he earned his reputation as being a lawgiver and administrator and a caring man who deeply mourned his wife by erecting the Eleanor Crosses (which marked the route taken by Queen Eleanor's funeral carriage), and then married the French King's sister just to seal a peace treaty.

Eleanor Of Castile, Queen Of England

F, b. circa 1240, d. November 29, 1290

Parents

Family: Edward I Plantagenet King Of ("Longshanks") England (b. June 17, 1239, d. July 7, 1307)

Biography

  • Birth: Eleanor Of Castile, Queen Of England, was born circa 1240 in Castile, Burgos, Castilla-Leon, Spain.
  • Marriage: She and Edward I Plantagenet King Of ("Longshanks") England were married on October 18, 1254 in Burgos, Burgos, Spain.
  • Death: Eleanor Of Castile, Queen Of England, died on November 29, 1290 in Heredeby, Lincolnshire, England.
  • Note: NOTES: Eleanor was only about ten years old when married to the 15 year old Edward of Westminster at Las Huelgas in 1254. Such child marriages were commonplace in Europe in the Middle Ages and the brides were usually consigned to their husbands' families to complete ther education. The marriages were not consummated until the bride reached a suitable age (usually 14 or 15) and in Eleanor's case it seems to have been 18 or 19.

    Eleanor of Castile (1244?-90), queen consort of England (1272-90), daughter of Ferdinand III, king of Castile and León. In 1254 she married Prince Edward, later Edward I of England, the eldest son of King Henry III. In 1270 she accompanied Edward on the Seventh Crusade. During their absence from England, Henry III died (1272), and Edward succeeded to the throne. Two years later, following their return from the Middle East, Edward and Eleanor were crowned king and queen of England.



    "Eleanor of Castile," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 98 Encyclopedia. (c) 1993-1997 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Henry III Plantagenet King Of England

M, b. October 1, 1207, d. November 20, 1272

Parents

Family: Eleanor De Provence Queen Of England (b. 1217, d. June 24, 1291)

Biography

  • Birth: Henry III Plantagenet King Of England was born on October 1, 1207 in Winchester, Hampshire, England.
  • Marriage: He and Eleanor De Provence Queen Of England were married on January 14, 1236 in Canterbury, Kent, England.
  • Death: Henry III Plantagenet King Of England died on November 20, 1272, at age 65, in Westminster, London, Middlesex, England.
  • Burial: He was buried in Westminster Abbey, London, England.
  • Note: Henry ascended the throne at the age of nine, on the death of his father. During his minority the kingdom was ruled by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, as regent, but after his death in 1219 the justiciar Hubert de Burgh was the chief power in the government. During the regency the French, who occupied much of eastern England, were expelled, and rebellious barons were subdued.

    Henry was declared of age in 1227. In 1232 he dismissed Hubert de Burgh from his court and commenced ruling without the aid of ministers. Henry displeased the barons by filling government and church offices with foreign favorites, many of them relatives of his wife, Eleanor of Provence, whom he married in 1236, and by squandering money on Continental wars, especially in France. In order to secure the throne of Sicily for one of his sons, Henry agreed to pay the Pope a large sum. When the king requested money from the barons to pay his debt, they refused and in 1258 forced him to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, whereby he agreed to share his power with a council of barons. Henry soon repudiated his oath, however, with papal approval. After a brief period of war, the matter was referred to the arbitration of Louis IX, King of France, who decided in Henry's favor in a judgment called the Mise of Amiens (1264). Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, accordingly led the barons into war, defeated Henry at Lewes, and took him prisoner. In 1265, however, Henry's son and heir, Edward, later King Edward I, led the royal troops to victory over the barons at Evesham, about 40 km (about 25 mi) south of Birmingham. Simon de Montfort was killed in the battle, and the barons agreed to a compromise with Edward and his party in 1267. From that time on Edward ruled England, and when Henry died, he succeeded him as king.

    "Henry III (of England)," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 97 Encyclopedia. (c) 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

    Burial: Westminster Abbey, London.

Eleanor De Provence Queen Of England

F, b. 1217, d. June 24, 1291

Parents

Family: Henry III Plantagenet King Of England (b. October 1, 1207, d. November 20, 1272)

Biography

  • Birth: Eleanor De Provence Queen Of England was born in 1217 in Aix-en-Provence, Bouches-du-Rhône, France.
  • Marriage: She and Henry III Plantagenet King Of England were married on January 14, 1236 in Canterbury, Kent, England.
  • Death: Eleanor De Provence Queen Of England died on June 24, 1291, at age ~74, in Ambresbury, Wiltshire, England.

John King Of England

M, b. December 24, 1167, d. October 19, 1216

Parents

Family 1: Agatha De Ferrers (b. 1172)

Family 2: Isabella De Taillefer, Queen Of England, (b. August 26, 1186, d. May 31, 1246)

Biography

  • Birth: John King Of England was born on December 24, 1167 in King's Manor, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England.
  • Marriage: He and Isabella De Taillefer, Queen Of England, were married on August 24, 1200 in Bordeaux, Gironde, France.
  • Death: John King Of England died on October 19, 1216, at age 48, in Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England.
  • Burial: He was buried in Cathedral, Worcester, Worcestershire, England.
  • Occupation: He was a Lackland.

Isabella De Taillefer, Queen Of England

F, b. August 26, 1186, d. May 31, 1246

Parents

Family 1: John King Of England (b. December 24, 1167, d. October 19, 1216)

Family 2: Hugh Brun X Count of Marche of Lusignan (b. 1183, d. 1246)

Biography

  • Birth: Isabella De Taillefer, Queen Of England, was born on August 26, 1186 in Angoulême, Charente, Poitou-Charentes, France.
  • Marriage: She and John King Of England were married on August 24, 1200 in Bordeaux, Gironde, France.
  • Death: Isabella De Taillefer, Queen Of England, died on May 31, 1246, at age 59, in Fontevraud, Maine-et-Loire, France.

Henry II Fitz-Empress King Of England

M, b. March 25, 1133, d. July 6, 1189

Parents

Family 1: Ida Isabel Plantagenet (b. 1164)

Family 2: Eleanor Princess Of Aquitaine (b. 1121, d. March 31, 1204)

Biography

  • Birth: Henry II Fitz-Empress King Of England was born on March 25, 1133 in Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France.
  • Marriage: He and Eleanor Princess Of Aquitaine were married on May 15, 1152 in Bordeaux, Gironde, France.
  • Death: Henry II Fitz-Empress King Of England died on July 6, 1189, at age 56, in Chinon Castle, France.
  • Burial: He was buried in Fontevraud Abbey, France.
  • Note: Henry II Fitz-Empress Curtmantle King Of ENGLAND.
  • Note: Acceded: 19 DEC 1154, Westminster Abbey, London, England _FA7: Reigned 1154-1189. He ruled an empire that stretched from the Tweed to the _FA8: Pyrenees. In spite of frequent hostitilties with the French King his own Note: Born March 5, 1133, at Le Mans, France, Henry became Duke of Normandy in 1151. The following year, on the death of his father, he inherited the Angevin territories in France. By his marriage in 1152 to Eleanor of Aquitaine, Henry added vast territories in southwestern France to his possessions. Henry claimed the English kingship through his mother, Matilda. She had been designated the heiress of Henry I but had been deprived of the succession by her cousin, Stephen of Blois, who made himself king. In 1153 Henry defeated Stephen's armies in England and compelled the king to choose him as his successor; on Stephen's death, the following year, Henry became king. During the first few years of his reign Henry quelled the disorders that had developed during Stephen's reign, regained the northern counties of England, which had previously been ceded to Scotland, and conquered North Wales. In 1171-72 he began the Norman conquest of Ireland and in 1174 forced William the Lion, King of the Scots, to recognize him as overlord.

    In 1164 Henry became involved in a quarrel with Thomas à Becket, whom he had appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. By the Constitutions of Clarendon, the king decreed that priests accused of crimes should be tried in royal courts; Becket claimed that such cases should be handled by ecclesiastical courts, and the controversy that followed ended in 1170 with Becket's murder by four of Henry's knights. Widespread indignation over the murder forced the king to rescind his decree and recognize Becket as a martyr.

    Although he failed to subject the church to his courts, Henry's judicial reforms were of lasting significance. In England he established a centralized system of justice accessible to all freemen and administered by judges who traveled around the country at regular intervals. He also began the process of replacing the old trial by ordeal with modern court procedures.

    From the beginning of his reign, Henry was involved in conflict with Louis VII, of France, and later with Louis's successor, Philip II, over the French provinces that Henry claimed. A succession of rebellions against Henry, headed by his sons and furthered by Philip II and by Eleanor of Aquitaine, began in 1173 and continued until his death at Chinon, France, on July 6, 1189. Henry was succeeded by his son Richard I.

    Reigned 1154-1189. He ruled an empire that stretched from the Tweed to the Pyrenees. In spite of frequent hostitilties with the French King his own family and rebellious Barons (culminating in the great revolt of 1173-74) and his quarrel with Thomas Becket, Henry maintained control over his possessions until shortly before his death. His judicial and administrative reforms which increased Royal control and influence at the expense of the Barons were of great constitutional importance. Introduced trial by Jury. Duke of Normandy. "Henry II (of England)," Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 97 Encyclopedia. (c) 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

    Burial: Fontevraud Abbey

    1. Henry II was Count of Anjou (1151-1189) whose family emblem was the 'plante genet', a yellow flowering broom; Duke of Normandy (1151-1189); Duke of Aquitane (1152-1189) and as King of England (1154-1189), ruled an empire that stretched from the Tweed to the Pyrenees. He was the Founder of the Angevin, or Plantagenet, line. Henry was the first of fourteen hereditary kings, who were later referred to in the history oracles as Plantagenets. He is more commonly known as FitzEmpress, Henry II Curtmantle, King of England. 2. In spite of frequent hostilities with the French King, his own family and rebellious Barons (culminating in the great revolt of 1173-74) and his quarrel with Thomas Becket, Henry II maintained control over his possessions until shortly before his death. 3. Henry II's judicial and administrative reforms, which increased Royal control and influence at the expense of the Barons, were of great constitutional importance. 4. Henry II Introduced trial by Jury. 5. Henry II, by marrying ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE immediately after her divorce from Louis VII, King of France, gained vast territories in France. Henry had lands reaching for 1000 miles, and it was this vast domain, which was called the Angevin Empire. 6. In 1153 he invaded England and forced STEPHEN to acknowledge him as his heir. As king he restored order to war-ravaged England, subdued the barons, centralized the power of government in royalty, and strengthened royal courts. Henry's desire to increase royal authority brought him into conflict with THOMAS A BECKET, whom he had made (1162) archbishop of Canterbury. The quarrel, which focused largely on the jurisdiction of the church courts, came to a head when Henry issued (1163) the Constitutions of CLARENDON, defining the relationship between church and state, and ended (1170) with Becket's murder, for which Henry was forced by public indignation to do penance. During his reign he gained northern counties from Scotland and increased his French holdings. 7. Henry II was also involved in family struggles. Encouraged by their mother and LOUIS VI of France, his three oldest sons, Henry, RICHARD I, and Geoffrey, rebelled (1173-74) against him. The rebellion collapsed, but at the time of Henry's death, Richard and the youngest son, JOHN, were in the course of another rebellion. He was unfortunate in love, relentlessly and romantically pursuing the hand of his wife, Eleanor, who became a selfish spoilt lady, and who turned her sons against their own father. Because of the rebellion by the eldest son, Henry was crushed, and Eleanor was placed under house arrest for fifteen years. The other brothers placed continual pressure on their father, in alliances with the King of France. Henry died a lonely and grief stricken man deserted by all of those he had loved and honored.

Eleanor Princess Of Aquitaine

F, b. 1121, d. March 31, 1204

Parents

Family 1: Louis Capet Louis VII King Of France (b. circa 1121, d. September 18, 1180)

Family 2: Henry II Fitz-Empress King Of England (b. March 25, 1133, d. July 6, 1189)

Biography

  • Birth: Eleanor Princess Of Aquitaine was born in 1121 in Chateau de Belin, Gironde, Bordeaux, France.
  • Marriage: She and Henry II Fitz-Empress King Of England were married on May 15, 1152 in Bordeaux, Gironde, France.
  • Death: Eleanor Princess Of Aquitaine died on March 31, 1204, at age ~83, in Mirabell Castle, Tarn-et-Garonne, France.

Geoffrey V Plantagenet Count Of Anjou

M, b. August 24, 1113, d. September 7, 1151

Parents

Family 1: Adelaide of Angers (b. 1112)

Family 2: Matilda Or Maud Princess Of England (b. 1104, d. September 10, 1167)

Biography

  • Birth: Geoffrey V Plantagenet Count Of Anjou was born on August 24, 1113 in Anjou, Tours, Touraine, France.
  • Marriage: He and Adelaide of Angers were married on April 3, 1127.
  • Marriage: Geoffrey V Plantagenet Count Of Anjou and Matilda Or Maud Princess Of England were married on April 22, 1137 in Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France.
  • Death: Geoffrey V Plantagenet Count Of Anjou died on September 7, 1151, at age 38, in Chateau du Loir, Eure-et-Loire, France.
  • Burial: He was buried in Cathedral, Le Mans, France.
  • Occupation: He was a Le Bon.

Matilda Or Maud Princess Of England

F, b. 1104, d. September 10, 1167

Parents

Family: Geoffrey V Plantagenet Count Of Anjou (b. August 24, 1113, d. September 7, 1151)

Biography

  • Birth: Matilda Or Maud Princess Of England was born in 1104 in Winchester, Hampshire, England.
  • Marriage: She and Geoffrey V Plantagenet Count Of Anjou were married on April 22, 1137 in Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France.
  • Death: Matilda Or Maud Princess Of England died on September 10, 1167, at age ~63, in Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France.
  • Note: Declared heiress-presumptive in 1126, disputed the throne with Stephen. She was possibly a twin with William (Duke of Normandy). Had three sons, of whom the eldest later became King Henry II.

Foulques V Of Anjou

M, b. 1092, d. November 13, 1142

Parents

Family: Ermentrude Du Maine (b. circa 1093, d. 1126)

Biography

  • Birth: Foulques V Of Anjou was born in 1092 in Anjou, Tours, Touraine, France.
  • Marriage: He and Ermentrude Du Maine were married on July 11, 1110 in France.
  • Death: Foulques V Of Anjou died on November 13, 1142, at age ~50, in Jerusalem, Judah, Israel.
  • Occupation: He was a Le Jeuve, Count of Anjou.
  • Note: He was also known as Fulk the Young, and after 1131 as Fulk of Jerusalem, was Count of Anjou from 1109 to 1129, and king of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death. Fulk was born between 1089 and 1092, the son of Count Fulk IV of Anjou and Bertrade de Montfort. In 1092, Bertrade deserted her husband and became the mistress of King Philip I of France. He became count of Anjou upon his father's death in 1109, at the age of approximately 20. He was originally an opponent of King Henry I of England and a supporter of King Louis VI of France, but in 1127 he allied with Henry when Henry arranged for his daughter Matilda to marry Fulk's son Geoffrey of Anjou. Fulk went on crusade in 1120, and become a close friend of the Knights Templar. After his return he began to subsidize the Templars, and maintained two knights in the Holy Land for a year. By 1127 Fulk was preparing to return to Anjou when he received an embassy from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem. Baldwin II had no male heirs but had already designated his daughter Melisende to succeed him. Baldwin II wanted to safeguard his daughter's inheritance by marrying her to a powerful lord. Fulk was a wealthy crusader and experienced military commander, and a widower. His experience in the field would prove invaluable in a frontier state always in the grip of war.

    However, Fulk held out for better terms then mere consort of the Queen; he wanted to be king alongside Melisende. Baldwin II, reflecting on Fulk's fortune and military exploits, acquiesced. Fulk abdicated his county seat of Anjou to his son Geoffery and left for Jerusalem, where he married Melisende on June 2, 1129. Later Balwin II bolstered Melisende's position in the kingdom by making her sole guardian of her son by Fulk, Baldwin III, born in 1130.

    Fulk and Melisende became joint rulers of Jerusalem in 1131 with Baldwin II's death. From the start Fulk assumed sole control of the government, excluding Melisende altogether. He favored fellow countrymen from Anjou to the native nobility. The other crusader states to the north feared that Fulk would attempt to impose the suzerainty of Jerusalem over them, as Baldwin II had done; but as Fulk was far less powerful than his deceased father-in-law, the northern states rejected his authority. Melisende's sister Alice of Antioch, exiled from the Principality by Baldwin II, took control of Antioch once more after the death of her father. She allied with Pons of Tripoli and Joscelin II of Edessa to prevent Fulk from marching north in 1132; Fulk and Pons fought a brief battle before peace was made and Alice was exiled again. In Jerusalem as well, Fulk was resented by the second generation of Jerusalem Christians who had grown up there since the First Crusade. These "natives" focused on Melisende's cousin, the popular Hugh II of Le Puiset, count of Jaffa, who was devotedly loyal to the Queen. Fulk saw Hugh as a rival, and it did not help matters when Hugh's own step-son accused him of disloyalty. In 1134, in order to expose Hugh, Fulk accused him of infidelity with Melisende. Hugh rebelled in protest. Hugh secured himself to Jaffa, and allied himself with the Muslims of Ascalon. He was able to defeat the army set against him by Fulk, but this situation could not hold. The Patriarch interceded in the conflict, perhaps at the behest of Melisende. Fulk agreed to peace and Hugh was exiled from the kingdom for three years, a lenient sentence. However, an assassination attempt was made against Hugh. Fulk, or his supporters, were commonly believed responsible, though direct proof never surfaced. The scandal was all that was needed for the queen's party to take over the government in what amounted to a palace coup. Author and historian Bernard Hamilton wrote that the Fulk's supporters "went in terror of their lives" in the palace. Contemporary author and historian William of Tyre wrote of Fulk "he never attempted to take the initiative, even in trivial matters, without (Melisende's) consent". The result was that Melisende held direct and unquestioned control over the government from 1136 onwards. Sometime before 1136 Fulk reconciled with his wife, and a second son, Amalric was born. Jerusalem's northern border was of great concern. Fulk had been appointed regent of the Principality of Antioch by Baldwin II. As regent he had Raymund of Poitou marry the infant Constance of Antioch, daughter of Bohemund II and Alice of Antioch, and niece to Melisende. However, the greatest concern during Fulk's reign was the rise of Atabeg Zengi of Mosul. In 1137 Fulk was defeated in battle near Barin but allied with Mu'in ad-Din Unur, the vizier of Damascus. Damascus was also threatened by Zengi. Fulk captured the fort of Banias, to the north of Lake Tiberiasand thus secured the northern frontier. Fulk also strengthened the kingdom's southern border. His butler Paganus built the fortress of Kerak to the south of the Dead Sea, and to help give the kingdom access to the Red Sea, Fulk had Blanche Garde, Ibelin, and other forts built in the south-west to overpower the Egyptian fortress at Ascalon. In 1137 and 1142, Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus arrived in Syria attempting to impose Byzantine control over the crusader states. John's arrival was ignored by Fulk, who declined an invitation to meet the emperor in Jerusalem. In 1143, while the king and queen were on holiday in Acre, Fulk was killed in a hunting accident. His horse stumbled, fell, and Fulk's skull was crushed by the saddle. He was carried back to Acre, where he died and was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Though their marriage started in conflict, Melisende mourned for him privately as well as publicly. Fulk was survived by his son Geoffery of Anjou by his first wife, and Baldwin III and Amalric I by Melisende. In 1110, Fulk married Ermengarde of Maine (died 1126), the daughter of Elias I of Maine. His second wife was Melisende, Queen of Jerusalem. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)

Ermentrude Du Maine

F, b. circa 1093, d. 1126

Parents

Family: Foulques V Of Anjou (b. 1092, d. November 13, 1142)

Biography

  • Birth: Ermentrude Du Maine was born circa 1093 in Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France.
  • Marriage: She and Foulques V Of Anjou were married on July 11, 1110 in France.
  • Death: Ermentrude Du Maine died in 1126.

Foulques IV Of Anjou

M, b. 1033, d. April 14, 1109

Parents

Family 1: Bertrada De Montfort (b. circa 1059, d. February 14, 1116)

Family 2: Cundo Vagena (b. circa 1062)

Biography

  • Birth: Foulques IV Of Anjou was born in 1033 in Anjou, Tours, Touraine, France.
  • Death: He died on April 14, 1109, at age ~76.
  • Occupation: He was a Rechin, Count Of Anjou.

Bertrada De Montfort

F, b. circa 1059, d. February 14, 1116

Parents

Family 1: Philippe I King Of France (b. 1052, d. July 29, 1108)

Family 2: Foulques IV Of Anjou (b. 1033, d. April 14, 1109)

Biography

  • Birth: Bertrada De Montfort was born circa 1059 in Montfort, France.
  • Death: She died on February 14, 1116.

Geoffrey Alberic De Gatinais

M, b. 1000, d. April 1, 1046

Parents

Family: Hermangar Hermengar Of Anjou (b. 1013, d. March 21, 1075)

Biography

  • Birth: Geoffrey Alberic De Gatinais was born in 1000 in Chateau Landon, Seine-Et-Marne, France.
  • Marriage: He and Hermangar Hermengar Of Anjou were married in 1036 in France.
  • Death: Geoffrey Alberic De Gatinais died on April 1, 1046, at age ~46, in Anjou, Tours, Touraine, France.
  • Occupation: He was a Count.

Hermangar Hermengar Of Anjou

F, b. 1013, d. March 21, 1075

Parents

Family: Geoffrey Alberic De Gatinais (b. 1000, d. April 1, 1046)

Biography

  • Birth: Hermangar Hermengar Of Anjou was born in 1013 in Anjou, Tours, Touraine, France.
  • Marriage: She and Geoffrey Alberic De Gatinais were married in 1036 in France.
  • Death: Hermangar Hermengar Of Anjou died on March 21, 1075, at age ~62.
  • Occupation: She was a Countess.

Geoffroy III De Gatinais

M, b. 970, d. 1000

Parents

Family: Beatrix Beatrice De Macon (b. 974)

Biography

  • Birth: Geoffroy III De Gatinais was born in 970 in France.
  • Death: He died in 1000, at age ~30.
  • Occupation: He was a Ferreol, Count.

Beatrix Beatrice De Macon

F, b. 974

Parents

Family: Geoffroy III De Gatinais (b. 970, d. 1000)

Biography

  • Birth: Beatrix Beatrice De Macon was born in 974 in Bourgogne, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France.
  • Occupation: She was a Countess.

Aubri Count De Gatinais

M, b. 945

Parents

Family:

Biography

  • Birth: Aubri Count De Gatinais was born in 945 in Gatinais, Eure-et-Loir, Centre, France.

Geoffrey Count De Gatinais

M, b. 925

Parents

Family:

Biography

  • Birth: Geoffrey Count De Gatinais was born in 925.

Aubri Count Gatinais Viscout Of Orleans

M, b. 950

Parents

Biography

  • Birth: Aubri Count Gatinais Viscout Of Orleans was born in 950 in Gatinais, Eure-et-Loir, Centre, France.
  • Note: Aubri Count Of Gatinais Viscout Of ORLEANS.

Foulques III Of Anjou

M, b. July 21, 987, d. June 21, 1040

Parents

Family: Hildegarde Hermengarde De Lorraine (b. 974, d. April 1, 1046)

Biography

  • Birth: Foulques III Of Anjou was born on July 21, 987 in Anjou, Tours, Touraine, France.
  • Marriage: He and Hildegarde Hermengarde De Lorraine were married in 1000.
  • Death: Foulques III Of Anjou died on June 21, 1040, at age 52, in Metz, Moselle, Lorraine, France.
  • Occupation: He was a Nerra, Count.

Hildegarde Hermengarde De Lorraine

F, b. 974, d. April 1, 1046

Family: Foulques III Of Anjou (b. July 21, 987, d. June 21, 1040)

Biography

  • Birth: Hildegarde Hermengarde De Lorraine was born in 974 in Anjou, Tours, Touraine, France.
  • Marriage: She and Foulques III Of Anjou were married in 1000.
  • Death: Hildegarde Hermengarde De Lorraine died on April 1, 1046, at age ~72, in Jerusalem, Judah, Israel.

Guichard V "the Great" of Beaujeu

M, b. 1170, d. September 27, 1216

Parents

Family: Sybille of Hainaut (b. 1179, d. January 9, 1217)

Biography

  • Birth: Guichard V "the Great" of Beaujeu was born in 1170 in Beaujeu, Rhône, Rhône-Alpes, France.
  • Death: He died on September 27, 1216, at age ~46, in Dover, Kent, England.