John of Portugal
M, b. January 13, 1400, d. October 18, 1442
- Birth: John of Portugal was born on January 13, 1400 in Santarém, Santarem, Portugal.
- Marriage: He and Isabella of Barcelos were married in 1424.
- Death: John of Portugal died on October 18, 1442, at age 42, in Alcácer do Sal, Setúbal, Portugal.
Isabella of Barcelos
F, b. October 1402, d. October 26, 1466
- Birth: Isabella of Barcelos was born in October 1402 in Barcelos, Braga, Minho, Portugal.
- Marriage: She and John of Portugal were married in 1424.
- Death: Isabella of Barcelos died on October 26, 1466, at age ~64, in Arevalo, Ávila, Castile and León, Spain.
Alfonso of Braganza
M, b. August 10, 1377, d. December 15, 1461
- Birth: Alfonso of Braganza was born on August 10, 1377 in Veiros, Estremoz, Alentejo, Portugal.
- Marriage: He and Beatriz Pereira of Alvim were married on November 8, 1401.
- Death: Alfonso of Braganza died on December 15, 1461, at age 84, in Chaves, Trás-os-Montes, Portugal.
Beatriz Pereira of Alvim
F, b. 1380, d. 1415
- Birth: Beatriz Pereira of Alvim was born in 1380.
- Marriage: She and Alfonso of Braganza were married on November 8, 1401.
- Death: Beatriz Pereira of Alvim died in 1415, at age ~35, in Chaves, Trás-os-Montes, Portugal.
F, b. 1350
- Birth: Ines Peres was born in 1350.
St Nuno Alvares Pereira
M, b. June 24, 1360, d. April 1, 1431
- Birth: St Nuno Alvares Pereira was born on June 24, 1360 in Cernache do Bonjardim, Sertã, Portugal.
- Marriage: He and Leonor of Alvim were married in 1376.
- Death: St Nuno Alvares Pereira died on April 1, 1431, at age 70, in Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
- Note: NUNO ÁLVARES PEREIRA was born in Portugal on 24th June 1360, most probably at Cernache do Bomjardin, illegitimate son of Brother Álvaro Gonçalves Pereira, Hospitalier Knight of St. John of Jerusalem and prior of Crato and Donna Iria Gonçalves do Carvalhal. About a year after his birth, the child was legitimized by royal decree and so was able to receive a knightly education typical of the offspring of the noble families of the time. At thirteen years of age he became page to Queen Leonor, was received at court and was created a knight. At sixteen years of age, at the wish of his father, he married a rich young widow Donna Leonor de Alvim. Three children were born to the union, two boys who died early in life, and a girl, Beatrice, who would eventually marry Afonso, first Duke of Bragança, son of King João I.a
When King Fernando died, without an heir on 22nd October 1383, his brother João, became involved in the struggle to win the Lusitanian crown, which was being contested by the King of Castile, who had married the daughter of the dead king. Nuno took João’s side. He wanted him as his constable, that is commander-in-chief of the army. Nuno led the Portuguese army to victory on various occasions up until the battle of Aljubarrota (14th August 1385), which brought the conflict to an end.
The military capabilities of Nuno were, nevertheless, tempered by a deep spirituality, a profound love of the Eucharist and of the Blessed Virgin, the main foundations of his interior life. Totally dedicated to Marian prayer, he fasted in Mary’s honour on Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays and on the vigil of her feasts. The banner he chose as his personal standard bore the image of the cross, of Mary and of the saintly knights James and George. At his own expense he built numerous churches and monasteries, among which was the Carmelite church in Lisbon and the church of Our Lady of Victories at Batalha.
Following the death of his wife in 1387, Nuno did not wish to marry again and became a model of celibate life. When peace finally came, he gave the bulk of his wealth to the veterans, the rest he would dispose of in 1423 when he decided to enter the convent of the Carmelites which he himself had founded, taking the name of Brother Nuno of Saint Mary. Animated by love he abandoned power to serve the poor: it was a radical choice for a life, bringing as it did to a high point, the authentic path of faith which he had always followed. With this choice, he left behind the weapons of war and power in order to be vested in spiritual armor as the Rule of Carmel recommends. He would have wanted to withdraw to a community far away from Portugal, but the son of the king, Don Duarte, prevented it. No power could stop him from dedicating himself to the convent and above all to the poor, whom he continued to help and serve in every possible way. For them he organized a daily distribution of food and never hesitated in responding to their needs. The Commander of the King of Portugal, chief officer of the army and victorious leader, founder and benefactor of the Carmelite community, when entering the convent did not want any privileges but chose the humblest rank of a lay brother, putting himself at the service of the Lord, of Mary his ever venerated Patron, and of the poor in whom he recognized the face of Jesus himself.
Of significance too was the day of the death of Brother Nuno of Saint Mary: it was Easter Sunday, the 1st April 1431, and what following it was that he was immediately acclaimed a saint by the people who called him “O Santo Condestavel”.
While the fame of Nuno’s holiness remained constant and grew over time, more complex was the interim period of time leading to the process of canonization. This process was begun by the Portuguese sovereigns, and then by the Carmelite Order. But many other obstacles were to get in the way. Only in 1894 did Fr. Anastasio Ronci, then Postulator General of the Carmelites, succeed in introducing the process of recognition of the cult ab immemorabili of Blessed Nuno, which despite the difficulties came to a happy conclusion on 23rd December 1918 with the Decree Clementissimus Deus of Pope Benedict XV.
Even the relics were moved many times for the original tomb in the Carmelite church, until finally in 1961 on the occasion of the sixth centenary of the birth of Blessed Nuno, a pilgrimage was organized with the precious silver reliquary in which they were kept. Shortly afterwards this too was robbed and the reliquary never found. In their place some bones, relics from other places, were gathered together and preserved. The discovery of the site of the original tomb in 1996, together with some authenticated bone fragments, awakened the desire to hasten the proclamation of Blessed Nuno as a saint in the church.
The Postulator General of the Carmelites, Fr. Felipe M. Amenós y Bonet, took up the cause again and this was collaborated by an approved miracle in the year 2000. The required inquiries having been undertaken, the Holy Father, Pope Benedict XVI made the proclamation of the decree of the miracle on 3rd July 2008. Blessed Nuno was enrolled in the list of saints on 26th April 2009 by Pope Benedict XV in Vatican City.
- Occupation: He was a Carmelite in 1423.
Leonor of Alvim
F, b. circa 1355
Henry II of France
M, b. March 31, 1519, d. July 10, 1559
- Birth: Henry II of France was born on March 31, 1519 in Castle of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines, France.
- Marriage: He and Catherine de Medici were married on October 28, 1533 in Marseilles, Cher, Centre, France.
- Death: Henry II of France died on July 10, 1559, at age 40, in Paris, Paris, Ile-de-France, France.
Catherine de Medici
F, b. April 13, 1519, d. January 5, 1589
- Birth: Catherine de Medici was born on April 13, 1519 in Florence, Italy.
- Marriage: She and Henry II of France were married on October 28, 1533 in Marseilles, Cher, Centre, France.
- Death: Catherine de Medici died on January 5, 1589, at age 69, in Blois, Loir-et-Cher, Centre, France.
Lorenzo II de Medici
M, b. September 12, 1492, d. May 4, 1519
- Birth: Lorenzo II de Medici was born on September 12, 1492 in Florence, Italy.
- Marriage: He and Madeleine de la Tour were married on June 13, 1518.
- Death: Lorenzo II de Medici died on May 4, 1519, at age 26, in Florence, Italy.
Madeleine de la Tour
F, b. 1498, d. April 28, 1519
- Birth: Madeleine de la Tour was born in 1498.
- Marriage: She and Lorenzo II de Medici were married on June 13, 1518.
- Death: Madeleine de la Tour died on April 28, 1519, at age ~21, in Florence, Italy.
Piero "the Unfortunate" di Lorenzo de' Medici
M, b. 1471, d. 1503
- Birth: Piero "the Unfortunate" di Lorenzo de' Medici was born in 1471 in Florence, Italy.
- Marriage: He and Alfonsina Orsini were married in 1486.
- Death: Piero "the Unfortunate" di Lorenzo de' Medici died in 1503, at age ~32, in Italy.
- Note: Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici was the eldest son of Lorenzo de' Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) and Clarice Orsini, and older brother of the future Pope Leo X.
He was educated to succeed his father as head of the Medici family and de facto ruler of the Florentine state, under notable figures such as Angelo Poliziano. However, his feeble, arrogant and undisciplined character was to prove unsuited to such a role.
Piero took over as leader of Florence in 1492, upon Lorenzo's death. After a brief period of relative calm, the fragile pacific equilibrium between the Italian states, laboriously constructed by Piero's father, collapsed in 1494 with the decision of King Charles VIII of France to cross the Alps with an army in order to take the Kingdom of Naples, claiming hereditary rights. Charles had been lured to Italy by Ludovico Sforza, (Ludovico il Moro), ex-Regent of Milan, as a way to eject Ludovico's nephew Gian Galeazzo Sforza and replace him as Duke.
After settling matters in Milan, Charles moved towards Naples. He needed to pass through Tuscany, as well as leave troops there, securing his lines of communication with Milan. Piero attempted to stay neutral, but this was unacceptable to Charles, who intended to invade Tuscany. Piero attempted to mount a resistance, but received little support from Florentine elites, who had fallen under the influence of the fanatical Dominican priest Girolamo Savonarola; even his cousins defected to Charles's side.
Piero quickly gave up as Charles's army neared Florence and surrendered the chief fortresses of Tuscany to the invading army, giving Charles everything he demanded. His poor handling of the situation and failure to negotiate better terms led to an uproar in Florence, and the Medici family fled. The family palazzo was looted, and the substance as well as the form of the Republic of Florence was re-established, with the Medici formally exiled. A member of the Medici family was not to rule Florence again until 1512.
Piero and his family at first fled to Venice with the aid of Philippe de Commines. In 1503 as the French and Spanish continued their struggle in Italy over the Kingdom of Naples, Piero was drowned in the Garigliano River while attempting to flee the aftermath of the battle, which the French (with whom he was allied) had lost.
F, b. 1472, d. February 7, 1520
Lorenzo de' Medici
M, b. January 1, 1449, d. April 9, 1492
- Birth: Lorenzo de' Medici was born on January 1, 1449 in Florence, Italy.
- Marriage Contract: He and Clarice Orsini entered into a marriage contract on February 7, 1469 in by proxy.
- Marriage: Lorenzo de' Medici and Clarice Orsini were married on June 4, 1469 in Florence, Italy.
- Death: Lorenzo de' Medici died on April 9, 1492, at age 43, in Florence, Italy.
F, b. 1450, d. July 30, 1488
- Birth: Clarice Orsini was born in 1450 in Rome, Italy.
- Marriage Contract: She and Lorenzo de' Medici entered into a marriage contract on February 7, 1469 in by proxy.
- Marriage: Clarice Orsini and Lorenzo de' Medici were married on June 4, 1469 in Florence, Italy.
- Death: Clarice Orsini died on July 30, 1488, at age ~38, in Florence, Italy.
Piero di Cosimo de' Medici
M, b. September 19, 1416, d. February 2, 1469
- Birth: Piero di Cosimo de' Medici was born on September 19, 1416 in Florence, Italy.
- Marriage: He and Lucerzia Tornabuoni were married on June 3, 1444.
- Death: Piero di Cosimo de' Medici died on February 2, 1469, at age 52, in Florence, Italy.
F, b. June 22, 1427, d. March 25, 1482
- Birth: Lucerzia Tornabuoni was born on June 22, 1427 in Florence, Italy.
- Marriage: She and Piero di Cosimo de' Medici were married on June 3, 1444.
- Death: Lucerzia Tornabuoni died on March 25, 1482, at age 54, in Florence, Italy.
Cosimo di' Medici
M, b. April 10, 1389, d. August 1, 1464
- Birth: Cosimo di' Medici was born on April 10, 1389 in Florence, Italy.
- Marriage: He and Contessina de' Bardi were married circa 1415.
- Death: Cosimo di' Medici died on August 1, 1464, at age 75, in Florence, Italy.
Contessina de' Bardi
F, b. circa 1400, d. October 1473
- Birth: Contessina de' Bardi was born circa 1400 in Florence, Italy.
- Marriage: She and Cosimo di' Medici were married circa 1415.
- Death: Contessina de' Bardi died in October 1473 in Florence, Italy.
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici
M, b. 1360, d. February 20, 1429
- Birth: Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici was born in 1360 in Florence, Italy.
- Death: He died on February 20, 1429, at age ~69, in Florence, Italy.
- Note: Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici was born in Florence, the son of Averardo de' Medici and Jacopa Spini. Though he is considered the founder of the rich Medici dynasty, he was not born into a rich family. The little money left by his father was divided between a widow and five sons, leaving Giovanni with little.
Giovanni was somewhat uninterested in politics, unless the issues pertained to his family or bank. Often when his name was put forward to participate in the Florentine government (reggimento), he chose to pay the fine rather than serve, although he did serve one term as Gonfaloniere.
Giovanni was at the head of an early "multi-national" company, as the family bank, his main commercial interest, had branches throughout the northern Italian city-states and beyond. In 1414, Giovanni bet on the return of the papacy to Rome, and was correct. Rewarding Giovanni for his support, the Pope gave Giovanni's general manager control of the Apostolic Chamber. Subsequent popes made use of the Medici banks. Giovanni was also rewarded with tax-farming contracts and the rights to many alum mines. He set his family on the path to becoming one of the richest dynasties in Europe, thereby making an essential stride towards its later cultural and political eminence. One way in which he laid the groundwork for this was by marrying Piccarda Bueri, whose family was old and respectable and who brought a dowry.
When he died, he was one of the richest men in Florence, as shown by his tax report of 1429. In 1420, Giovanni had given the majority of control of the bank to his two sons, Cosimo and Lorenzo. He was buried in the Old Sacristy of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence and his wife was buried with him after her death four years later.
F, b. 1368, d. 1433
- Birth: Piccarda Bueri was born in 1368 in Verona, Italy.
- Death: She died in 1433, at age ~65, in Florence, Italy.
Averardo de' Medici
M, b. circa 1320, d. 1363
- Birth: Averardo de' Medici was born circa 1320.
- Death: He died in 1363.
F, b. circa 1320
- Birth: Jacopa Spini was born circa 1320.
Giovanni di Lorenzo (Pope Leo X) de' Medici
M, b. December 11, 1475, d. December 1, 1521
- Birth: Giovanni di Lorenzo (Pope Leo X) de' Medici was born on December 11, 1475 in Florence, Italy.
- Death: He died on December 1, 1521, at age 45, in Rome, Italy.
- Note: Pope Leo X was born Giovanni di Lorenzo de’Medici on the 11th of December 1475 in the Republic of Florence, Italy. Giovanni de’Medici was the second born of Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was the ruler of the Florentine republic and was destined for a career in the Church from a very early age. When he was eight years old, de’Medici received the tonsure (which is a ceremony that involves the cutting of hair from the head, marking the change of his status from layman to a cleric). On 8th March 1489, when he was 13 years old, his father convinced his relative Innocent VIII to name him cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Dominica. He studied theology and canon law at the University of Pisa between 1489 and 1491 and in 1492, he became a member of the Sacred College of Cardinals and took up residence in Rome.
In 1492, de’Medici participated in the conclave election of a new pope following the death of Innocent VIII. He opposed the election of Cardinal Borgia (who was elected as Pope Alexander VI), unsuccessfully. After the election he returned to Florence where he lived together with his brother until November 1494 when he was exiled together with the other members of the Medici family from Florence on the grounds of claims that the family had betrayed the republic. Between 1494 and 1500, Cardinal de’Medici travelled throughout northern Europe until 1500 when he returned to Italy and finally settled in Rome.
In 1503 he participated in the conclaves that elected the Pope Pius III. Cardinal de’Medici was then named papal legate to Bologna and Romagna in 1511 where he supervised the reestablishment of Medici control of the republic of Florence.
Following the death of Julius II on 21st February 1513 the Sacred College of Cardinals was summoned to elect a new pope. There was need to elect a peace-loving successor to the war-loving Julius II. His election was greatly supported by youthful and noble members of the Sacred College of Cardinals. His major rival was Raffaele Riario, who received support of the older group of the College. Cardinal de’Medici was elected as the new pope on 15th March 1513. He took the title of Leo X, he was ordained as a priest on the 15th of March and was then consecrated as the bishop of Rome on the 17th of March of the same year. His papal coronation then took place on the 19th of March 1513, at the age of 37. Pope Leo X was the last non-priest who was elected to be a Pope.
Pope Leo X was a lavish pope who spent not only the church’s money but also his own. Through his many enterprises he reinstated Rome as the cultural centre of Europe. During his reign as pope the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica, which was initiated under Julius II, was greatly accelerated. In addition the holdings of the Vatican Library were greatly increased and the arts flourished. Pope Leo X also spent many funds on charity.
Pope Leo X reigned in turbulent times for the Catholic Church. His Papacy was confronted by the Protestant reformation as well as other schisms and rebellions. Pope Leo X was also involved with the War of Urbino which lasted between February and September 1517. The war led to a crisis between pope and cardinals. Pope Leo X died on the 1st of December 1521 when he was 45 years old and was buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.
John III of Auvergne
M, b. 1467, d. March 28, 1501
- Birth: John III of Auvergne was born in 1467.
- Marriage: He and Jeanne of Bourbon were married on January 11, 1495.
- Death: John III of Auvergne died on March 28, 1501, at age ~34, in Orléans, Loiret, Centre, France.